10


Maintenance of Cannabis germplasm in the
Vavilov Research Institute Gene Bank - 1995

Sofia Kutuzova1, Lyudmila Rumyantseva2 and Robert C. Clarke3

1 Project Chief and 2 Researcher,
N. I. Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Industry, St. Petersburg, Russia;
3 International Hemp Association, Postbus 75007, 1070 AA Amsterdam, The Netherlands


    Kutuzova, Sofia, L. Rumyantseva and R. C. Clarke., 1996. Maintenance of Cannabis germplasm in the Vavilov Research Institute Gene Bank - 1995. Journal of the International Hemp Association 3(1): 10-12.
    Ninety-two samples of the Cannabis collection were planted on the isolated plots of Kuban, Ustimovka, Ekaterinino and Pavlovsk Experiment Stations of the VIR with the purpose of reproduction and maintenance of their viability.   Reproductions were received from 74 accessions; 4 did not germinate, 5 were stolen, and 9 failed to mature seed.


Introduction
    Hemp is a traditional and important industrial crop for Russian agriculture.  However, in recent years the areas of its cultivation have sharply diminished.  Only 8,000-10,000 hectares were cultivated in 1995.  Since Russia became cut off from the major cotton-producing areas in the south, the demand of the national industry in the country's own natural fibers (including that of hemp) has grown considerably.  Hence, there is again a tendency to develop and enhance cultivation and seed production technologies for commercial hemp cultivars as well as breeding new high-yielding hemp cultivars free from psychoactive substances.
    In such a situation the significance of hemp genetic resources stored in the gene bank of VIR has greatly increased.  However, these circumstances have made the process of germplasm viability maintenance much more difficult due to the separation of southern experiment stations where late-ripening thermophilous (heat requiring) hemp samples were formerly maintained, and also because of the increased risk of plant theft from isolated plots.  Despite precautions each year a part of the planted samples fail to yield reproductions due to poor seed ripening and theft.
    The target of this work was to maintain a set of hemp accessions from VIR's germplasm collection in order to revive their viability and confirm their identity for future use by plant breeders.

Materials and methods
    In 1995, in order to maintain germination ability, 92 accessions were planted on isolated plots in different climate conditions at 4 experimental stations:
    1) Pavlovsk (in the vicinity of St. Petersburg)
    2) Kuban (in Krasnodar Region)
    3) Ekaterinino (in Tambov Province)
    4) Ustimovka (Ukraine)
     The size of plots was dependent on the availability of seed and their germination rate.  Methods applied were the same as in previous years: manual planting in rows with 20 cm intervals between the rows; hoeing and weeding of young plants; removal of atypical plants during budding and flowering phases; and manual harvesting (Lemeshev et al. 1994).

Results
   On isolated plots of Pavlovsk Station 19 accessions of hemp belonging to the dioecious Northern and Middle Russian groups were planted.  The minimum distance between plots was 2 km.  The plots were protected by heavy forest cover and landscape relief providing additional isolation.  Meteorological conditions in 1995 were even more unfavorable than in 1994.  In May and June cold and rainy weather led to soaking of the soil, which caused delays in plowing and cultivation of isolated plots.  Hence planting was also delayed.  In June and August there was hot and dry weather with temperatures in excess of 30C.  All this produced negative effects on the development and productivity of the plants.  Harvesting was started in mid-September.  Of 19 planted samples, 15 yielded reproductions and 4 failed to yield mature seed (Table 1).

Table 1.  Results of 1995 VIR/IHA Cannabis Germplasm reproduction at Pavlovsk Experimental Station of VIR.
  Catalog
No.
Name/origin Total
plants
Seed Yield
(g)
 
  317
318
80
85
99
100
148
151
156
355
357
415
416
423
424
220
227
263
251
  U.S.S.R., Kirov Province
U.S.S.R., Komi Republic
U.S.S.R., Bashkirskaya
U.S.S.R., Tyumenskaya
U.S.S.R., Keshtovskaya
U.S.S.R., Altaiskaya
U.S.S.R., Altaiskaya
U.S.S.R., Mariyskaya
U.S.S.R., Tatarskaya
U.S.S.R., Mariyskaya
U.S.S.R., Mariyskaya
U.S.S.R., Kazakhstan
U.S.S.R., Kazakhstan
U.S.S.R., Kazakhstan
U.S.S.R., Kazakhstan
Germany, monoecious
Germany, monoecious
Germany, monoecious
Germany, monoecious
815
450
610
700
1100
250
300
420
180
120
160
230
205
180
160
80
50
60
170
  200
150
350
600
420
130
180
250
120
160
240
110
130
100
200
not ripened
not ripened
not ripened
not ripened
 
  Totals 19 accessions 6,240   3,340  

    Twenty accessions were planted on isolated plots at Ekaterinino Station.  Weather conditions in 1995 were not favorable: due to early spring drought many young plants grew sparsely and therefore produced poor seed yields.   As a result, 17 accessions reproduced seeds, 1 did not germinate, 1 was cut and stolen and 1 produced very few plants (Table 2).

Table 2.  Results of 1995 VIR/IHA Cannabis Germplasm reproduction at Ekaterinino Experimental Station of VIR.
  Catalog
No. 
Name/origin Total
plants
Seed Yield
(g)
 
  508
139
465
444
312
147
400
365
363
311
399
296
210
122
171
295
168
96
398
374
  U.S.S.R., Krasnodarskaya 56
Hungary, local
Turkey, local
Hungary, local
U.S.S.R., Chernovitskaya
U.S.S.R., Drogobychevskaya
France, Fibrimon
Hungary, B-7
Czechoslovakia, Shumperskaya
U.S.S.R., Yuzhnaya Cherkasskaya
France, Unya
U.S.S.R., Byelorusskaya
Romania, YCAR
U.S.S.R., Transcarpathian region
?, line 13/167
U.S.S.R., Yuzhnaya Chyiskaya
U.S.S.R., Kavkazskaya
Portugal, local
France, Fatza
Romania, local
150
204
92
115
35
120
94
65
204
86
15
36
267
71
156
-
1
10
340
196
  394
408
92
136
84
206
156
106
270
160
42
32
682
76
260
not germinated
2
38
735
stolen
 
  Totals 20 accessions 2,257   3,831  

    Twenty accessions belonging to the monoecious and dioecious Southern groups were planted on isolated plots at the Kuban Station.   Planting was delayed due to a delay in settling financial issues.  By the time of planting all other crops had already germinated.  Soil moisture had already been exhausted, and therefore plants on many plots grew sparsely.  Fifteen accessions were reproduced, 3 yielded insufficient number of plants and 2 were cut and stolen (Table 3).

Table 3.  Results of 1995 VIR/IHA Cannabis Germplasm reproduction at Kuban Experimental Station of VIR.
  Catalog
No. 
Name/origin Total
plants
Seed Yield
(g)
 
  298
185
297
326
320
284
180
181
436
395
535
437
467
173
18
377
484
22
481
538
  China, Keshal
China, Shan-van
China, Yhion
China, Lun-dzin
China, Bai-dzin-chun
China, local
China, Da-van-gru
China, Sar-san
Hungary, Fertody
Hungary, Kompolti
Hungary, local
Hungary, Szegedi 9
Romania, Fibrimulta
Hungary, Kompolti
Yugoslavia, local
Yugoslavia, Lescovashca
U.S.S.R., Alma-atinskaya
Yugoslavia
Hungary
France, Felina
3
2
51
62
9
10
70
5
70
74
153
96
35
98
10
52
1
55
19
60
  15
2
50
360
23
10
260
20
405
670
stolen
990
80
stolen
200
402
2
465
125
360
 
  Total 20 accessions 935   4,439  

    Thirty-three hemp accessions were planted at the Ustimovka Station.  Twenty of them were sown at the optimum time and produced good seed yield.  Thirteen additional samples were sown a little later in dry soil.   Because of that, 3 accessions did not germinate, and 5 did not yield mature seeds.   Two accessions were stolen, so only 23 accessions were fully reproduced (Table 4).

Table 4.  Results of 1995 VIR/IHA Cannabis Germplasm reproduction at Ustimovka Experimental Station of VIR.
  Catalog
No. 
Name/origin Total
plants
Seed Yield
(g)
 
  537
378
109
471
 
504
138
538
117
481
449
412
172
448
447
407
539
463
474
468
469
473
483
511
514
516
526
529
520
554
485
405
228
312
  Yugoslavia, Carmagnola
Yugoslavia, Carmagnola
U.S.S.R., Proskurovskaya
U.S.S.R., Khorezmskaya
U.S.S.R., Yuzhnaya Odnovremenno Sozrevayush 24
Hungary, line
France
Hungary, Fleishmann
Hungary, Uniko B
Hungary, Szegedi
Hungary, local
Hungary, Fertodi
Hungary, Kompolti
Hungary, Fibrimon 24
Hungary, local
France, Fibrimon 24
Italy, CS
Poland, local
U.S.S.R., Kazakhskaya
U.S.S.R., Kazakhskaya
U.S.S.R., hybrid
U.S.S.R., Tashkentskaya
U.S.S.R., Dneprovskaya 5
U.S.S.R., Irkutskaya
U.S.S.R., Armenia
U.S.S.R., Armenia
U.S.S.R., Primorskaya
U.S.S.R., Sozrevayushchaya 28
U.S.S.R., Daghestan
Yugoslavia, local
U.S.S.R., Arkhonskaya
Germany, monoecious
U.S.S.R., Chernovitskaya
168
234
640
40

274
208
106
260
204
102
296
106
276
54
63
76
92
119
106
53
-
95
93
65
-
58
69
75
-
105
122
316
96
  360
700
1,035
117

470
420
360
815
500
300
55
115
1,270
110
150
stolen
stolen
immature seeds
160
270
not germinated
265
immature seeds
240
not germinated
immature seeds
immature seeds
immature seeds
not germinated
200
475
1,115
500
 
  Total 33 accessions 4,571   10,002  

Conclusion
   Ninety-two hemp accessions were planted out with the intention of maintaining viability.   Seventy accessions were satisfactorily reproduced.  Four accessions did not germinate, 6 were cut and stolen, 10 did not yield mature seeds, and 3 samples produced an insufficient number of plants.
    Thanks to the implementation of the joint VIR/IHA project, in 1993-1995 a total of 252 hemp accessions were reproduced.  All of the samples were either very old seed reproductions (before 1989) or had a small number of seeds.  Successful reproductions were received from 134 threatened accessions.  In 55 accessions very small number of seeds were produced, so it would be necessary to repeat regeneration.   In addition, repeated regeneration is required for 65 accessions, which yielded insufficient seed quantities in 1991-1992 before the VIR/IHA project started.
    On the basis of the accomplished works, it is obvious that in order to complete this project successfully it would be necessary to enlarge the number of isolated plots.  This will require widening of the number of experiment stations participating in the project.  In 1995 the project was expanded into Italy (see pg. 7).  We hope to have cooperation with Italy again in 1996 and also initiate reproductions in Uzbekistan and Yugoslavia.

Reference


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