* The strong black nationalist sentiments of the rural areas of Jamaica manifested themselves in the religious protests of Alexander Bedward.  Bedward had re-interpreted the bible to depict the whites in the society as the devil, and he lambasted the merry-go-round of the Governor and his entourage.  The British military were deployed against Bedward; and when his idealism began to become legend, the colonial authorities declared that he was insane and committed him to a mental asylum.  See Barry Chevanes, Jamaican Lower Class Religion: Struggles Against Oppression, M.A. Thesis, U.W.I., 1971.


  1. George Shepperson has done the most thorough study of the Ethiopian movement in Africa and the New World.  The major problem with his writing is that he tended to examine this nationalist response as a simplistic and idealist movement.  See his article "Ethiopianism Past and Present" in C.G. Baeta, ed., Christianity in Tropical Africa, Oxford, 1968.  For specific development of Ethiopianism in 19th century black American thought see William Scott, "And Ethiopia Shall Stretch Forth Her Hands: The Origins of Ethiopianism in Afro-American Thought 1767-1896", Umoja, Spring, 1978.
  2. W. Scott, ibid.
  3. George Shepperson and Thomas Price, Independent Africa, Edinburgh University Press, 1958.
  4. The full impact of the Ethiopian movement on the Bambata Revolt of 1906, when more than 4000 Africans lost their lives in the struggle, is in doubt among scholars.  The link between religion and politics found the most concrete expression in the armed uprising of John Chilembwe in Nyasaland in 1915.  White missionaries and scholars blamed the Pan-African links between Chilembwe and the black American churches.  This revolt was an armed protest against the unjust taxation and forced labour of the colonialists.  See G. Shepperson and T. Price, ibid., and B.G.M. Sandkler, Bantu Prophets in South Africa, London, 1964.
  5. S.K.B. Asante, Pan-African Protest: West Africa and the Italo-Ethiopia Crisis 1934-1941, Longman, 1977.  Asante discusses the political symbolism for West Africans in the turn of the century, p.11.

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