1. It has not been possible to establish the exact date in 1914 of the pamphlet's publication.
2. Simon of Cyrene helped Jesus bear the cross (Luke 23:26); Cyrene was an ancient city situated in modern-day Libya. (WBD).
3. Hannibal (247-183 B.C.) was the Carthaginian general who engineered a brilliant attack against the Romans by crossing the Alps into Italy. (WBD).
4. Jacques Dessalines (ca. 1760-1806) was a former slave who served as Toussaint L'Ouverture's first lieutenant in the slave uprising of St. Domingo. Dessalines carried through the Haitian War of Independence, and was proclaimed the emperor of Haiti on 8 October 1804, but he was later shot and killed during an insurrection led by Henri Christophe. (WBD).
5. Arthur Barclay (1854-1938), a Barbadian immigrant to Liberia, was president of Liberia, serving from 1904 to 1912. (Mark R. Lipschutz and R. Kent Rasmussen, Dictionary of African Historical Biography [Chicago: Aldine Publishing, 1978]).
6. This may have been a reference to Elijah Johnson, an early Liberian pioneer, or to his son, Hilary R. W. Johnson, the first native-born president of Liberia (1884-1892). (See Tom W. Shick, Behold the Promised Land: A History of Afro-American Settler Society in Nineteenth-Century Liberia [Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1977]).
7. Sir Samuel Lewis (1843-1903), a barrister and member of the Sierra Leone Legislative Council for more than twenty-nine years, was also a leading figure of the Krio community at the height of its influence. Lewis was instrumental in the establishment of the Freetown Municipal Council and in 1895 became Freetown's first mayor. In 1896 he was knighted - the first African to be so honored. A friend of Edward Wilmot Blyden, Lewis wrote the preface in 1886 for Blyden's Christianity, Islam, and the Negro Race. (Dictionary of African Biography, vol. 2, Algonac, Mich.: Reference Publications, 1977]).
8. Federick Douglass (ca. 1817-1895) was born a slave in Tuckahoe, Md. He escaped from slavery in 1838 and settled in New Bedford, Mass. He became active in antislavery circles and in 1845 published his autobiography, Narrative on the Life of Frederick Douglass. A lecturer and editor of the North Star, after the Civil War Douglass served in various government positions, including minister to Haiti (1889-91). (WBD; John Blassingame, ed., The Federick Douglass Papers, vol. 1 [New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979]).
9. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (1868-1963) was the leading figure in the black protest movement in the United States before the First World War. Born in Great Barrington, Mass., Du Bois was educated at Fisk College, Nashville, Harvard University, and the University of Berlin. At the time that Garvey's pamphlet was published, Du Bois had already made a significant contribution to the historiography of blacks in The Suppression of the African Slave Trade, written in 1897, and had pioneered in the study of the sociology of blacks in The Philadelphia Negro and the Atlanta University studies. Du Bois's early interest in the international status of blacks was reflected in his attendance at the First Pan-African Congress in London in 1900. In 1911, he spoke before the International Races Convention in London, outlining the conditions black Americans faced, and in 1919 he revived the Pan-African movement by organizing a meeting in Paris during the peace conference at the end of World War I. He also served as the principal architect of the Pan-African Congresses of 1921, 1923, and 1925, as well as chairman of the 1945 congress. (Herbert Aptheker, ed., The Correspondence of W. E. B. Du Bois [Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1978]; Philip Foner, ed., W. E. B. Du Bois Speaks, vol. 1, 1890-1919; vol. 2, 1920-1963 [New York: Pathfinder Press, 1970]; and Arnold Rampersad, The Art and Imagination of W. E. B. Du Bois [Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976]).
10. Edward Wilmot Blyden, Christianity, Islam, and the Negro Race (London: W. B. Whittingham, 1887; 2nd ed., 1988), pp. 130-49. The passage which Garvey quoted was from the chapter, "Ethiopia stretching out her hands unto God: or, Africa's Service to the World (Discourse delivered before the American Colonization Society, May 1880)." Blyden's book, a collection of speeches, articles, and reviews, did much to establish his scholarly reputation. The essays dealt with the influence of Christianity and Islam on Africans, the achievements of the black race, and the role of blacks in Africa's past and future. Blyden articulated the thesis that Islam, with its lack of color distinctions, had beneficial effects for blacks, whereas he attacked the treatment of blacks within Christianity, especially Protestantism. Another major theme of Blyden's book concerned his belief that blacks could never be free except in Africa, and he urged Western blacks to emigrate.
11. William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898) served as the Liberal prime minister of England (1868-74, 1880-85, 1892-94). (WBD).
12. The remainder of the paragraph in the Blyden original was omitted (see p. 132).
13. Mungo Park (1771-1806), the Scottish explorer of Africa, was the author of Travels in the Interior of Africa (London, 1799). (WBD).
14. David Livingstone (1813-1873), Scottish missionary and explorer, organized many African expeditions, discovering Lake Ngami (1849), the Zambesi River (1851), and Victoria Falls (1855). After he became lost on a trip to find the source of the Nile River, he was rescued by Henry M. Stanley in 1871. (WBD).
15. George Smith (1840-1876) was an English antiquarian who deciphered the Chaldean account of the flood from the cuneiform tablets discovered during Sir Austin H. Layard's excavations of ancient Ninevah. (WBD).
16. Paragraph ending in Blyden original.
17. Paragraph ending in Blyden original.
18. The phrase "civilized idealism" expressed Garvey's concept wherein each race existed on the basis of its own separate civilization. Garvey spelled this out while addressing the eighth UNIA convention in Toronto, Canada, in August 1938:
... each group must find a sphere from which to operate[,] a sphere that is specifically different from the other group, so that th[e] group may be able to maintain itself in the future as it has maintained itself in the past. Each group must find its place in the world of humanity and must arrange to so effectively maintain itself, irrespective of what the other groups of humanity may say and do.
Unfortunately, the Negro within recent years of the history of man ... has completely lost his idealism in this respect. The idealism of maintaining and securing himself always as a separate the distinct unity of general humanity. (Marcus Garvey, "The Purpose of Man's Creation: The Negro's Fullest Part," BM 3 [November 1938], p. 15).