Own your ow legal marijuana business
Your guide to making money in the multi-billion dollar marijuana industry
The Drug Legalization Debate

BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MARIJUANA

submitted by Dr. Eric A. Voth, MD, of Drug Watch International

5/27/96

How this document got here:

I was in some private discussions with Dr. Voth, who is a vehement opponent of the legalization of marijuana. In the course of our discussion I pointed to the research which I already have on this website and asked Dr. Voth to supply any research or references which would support his point of view. It took a lot of pestering, but finally Dr. Voth submitted the following bibliography on marijuana.

What is most curious about this bibliography is that much of it does not support Dr. Voth's point of view. It honestly makes me wonder if he has read the books on his own list. I have specifically asked him about a few of the books listed here, such as the Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs, but he has never given any indication that he has read them. If Dr. Voth will respond with a list of the ones he claims to have read, I will post that, too.


Statistics:

Centrale Recherche Informatie 1993 report, Criminal Investigation Department. Rotterdam 1993.

Health Care Needs of Gay Men and Lesbians in the United States. Councilon Scientific Affairs. JAMA 1996;275:1354-58. [23.5% v 9.1% females 37.5% v 16.5% males used in prior month]

Maguire, K., ed. Sourcebook of Criminal Statistics 1992 Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. p.602

Zwart WM, Mensink C., "Alcohol, Tabak, Drugs en Gokken in cijfers," National Institute for Alcohol and Drugs, 1993, Rotterdam.

Recherche 1993, Criminal Investigation Department. Centrale Recherche Informatie 1993 report, Rotterdam 1993.


General medical/ physical effects:

Mathew, R.J. Middle cerebral artery velocity during upright posture after marijuana smoking. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 1992;86:173-178.

Nahas, G., and Latour, C. The human toxicity of marijuana. The Medical Journal of Australia. 1992;156:495-497.

Polen, M.R., Sidney, S., Tekawa, I.S., and Sadler, M. Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco. Western Journal of Medicine. 1993; 158:596-601.

Schwartz, R.H. Marijuana: an overview. Pediatric clinics of North America. 1987;34:305-317. [ poorly educated subjects or field hands, nonpeer reviewed journals, in one study- higher rates of absenteeism, delinquency, and reformatories in Costa Rica]


Cognitive, coordinative:

Block, R.I. and Wittenborn, J.R. Marijuana effects on the speed of memory retrieval in the letter-matching task. International Journal of the Addictions. 1986;21:281-285.

Leon-Carrion, J. Mental performance in long-term heavy users a preliminary report. Psychological Reports. 1990;67:947-952.

Leirer, V.O., Yesavage, J.A., and Morrow, D.G. Marijuana carry-over effects on psychomotor performance: a chronicle of research. Cannabis: Physiopathology, Epidemiology, Detection. CRC press. 1993 47-60.

Murray, J.B. Marijuana's effects on human cognitive functions, psychomotor functions, and personality. Journal of General Psychology. 1986;113:23-55.

Pope HG, Yurgelun-Todd D, The Residual Cognitive Effects of Heavy Marijuana Use in College Students. JAMA 1996;275:521-527

Schwartz, R.H., Gruenwald, P.J., Klitzner, M., and Fedio, P. Short-term memory impairment in cannabis-dependent adolescents. AJDC. 1989;143:1214-1219.

Solowij N, Michie PT, Fox AM, Differential Impairments of Selective Attention Due to Frequency and Duration of Cannabis Use. Biological Psychiatry 1995;37:731-739

Solowij N, Do Cognitive Impairments Recover Following Cessation of Cannabis Use? Life Sciences 1995;5:2119-26

Varma, V.K., Malhotra, A.K., Dang, R., Das, K., and Nehra, R. Cannabis and cognitive functions: a prospective study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 1988;21:147-152.

Yesavage, J.A., Leirer, V.O., Denari, M., and Hollister, L.E. Carry-over effects of marijuana intoxication on aircraft pilot performance; a preliminary report. Am. J. Psychiatry. 1985;142:1325-1329.


Behavioral, psychiatric effects:

Devane, W.A. et al. Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science. 1992;258:1946-1949

Lex, B.W., Griffin, M.L., Mellow, N.K., and Mendelson, J.H. Alcohol, marijuana, and mood states in young women. International Journal of the Addictions. 1989;24:405-424.

Mathers, D.C., and Ghodse, A.H. Cannabis and psychotic illness. _Wsh Journal of Psychiatry. 1992;161:648-653.

Nahas, C.G. Historical outlook of the psychopathology of cannabis. Cannabis: Physiopathology, Epidemiology, Detection. CRC Press.1993:95-99.

Solomons, K., Neppe, V.M., and Kuyl, J.M. Toxic cannabis psychosis is a valid entity. SAMJ. 1990;78:476-481.


Addiction:

Compton, D.R., Dewey. W.L., and Martin, B.R. Cannabis dependence and tolerance production. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse. 1990;9:129-147

Kaufman, E., et al. Committee on Drug Abuse of the Council on Psychiatric Services. Position statement on psychoactive substance use and dependence: update on marijuana and cocaine. Am J Psychiatry. 1987;144:698-702.

Miller, N.S., and Gold, M.S. The diagnosis of marijuana (cannabis) dependence. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 1989;6:183-192.

Miller, N.S., Gold, M.S., and Pottash, A.C. _0 12-step treatment approach for marijuana (cannabis) dependence. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 1989;6:241-250.


Gateway effects:

Bailey, S.L., Flewelling, R.L., and Rachal, J.V. Predicting continued use of marijuana among adolescents: the relative influence of drug-specific and social context factors. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1992; 33:51-66

Golub A, Johnson BD, The Shifting Importance of Alcohol and Marijuana as Gateway Substances among Serious Drug Abusers J. Stud Alcohol 1994;55:607-614 [marijuana's role as a gateway drug to serious drug use appears to have increased]

Kaplan, H.B., Martin, S.S., Johnson, R.J., and Robbins, C.A. Escalation of marijuana use: Application of a general theory of deviant behavior. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1986;27:44-61.

Kandel DB, _)guchi K, Chen K, Stages of Progression in Drug Involvement from Adolescence to Adulthood: Further Evidence for the Gateway Theory, J Stud. Alcohol;1992:447-457. [very few try illicit drugs other than marijuana without prior use of marijuana]

Kandel DB, Davies M, High School Students Who Use Crack and Other Drugs Archives of General Psychiatry 1996;53:71-80


Respiratory effects:

Barbers, R.G. et al. Differential examination of bronchoalveolar lavage cells in tobacco cigarette and marijuana smokers. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987;135:1271-1275

Barbers, R.G. et al. Chemotaxis of peripheral blood and lung leukocytes obtained from tobacco and marijuana smokers. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 1988;20:15-20

Fligiel, S.E., Venkat, H., Gong,H., and Tashkin, D.P., Bronchial pathology in chronic marijuana smokers: a light and electron microscopic study. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 1988;20:33-42.

Gong, H., et al. Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984;35:26-32.

Tashkin, D.P. Is frequent marijuana smoking harmful to health? Western Journal of Medicine. 1993;158:635-637.

Tashkin, D.P., et. al. Respiratory status of seventy-four habitual marijuana smokers. Chest. 1980;78:699-706.

Tashkin, D.P., Shapiro, B.J., Lee, Y.E., and Harper, C.E. Subacute effects of heavy marijuana smoking on pulmonary function in healthy men. NEJM. 1976;294:125-129.

Tashkin, D.P., Simmons, M., and Clark, V. Effect of habitual smoking of marijuana alone and with tobacco on nonspecific airways hyperreactivity. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 1988;20:21-25.

Tilles, D.S., __et al. Marijuana smoking as cause of reduction in single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. The American Journal of Medicine. 1986;80:601-606.

Wu, T.C., et al. Pulmonary hazards of smoking marijuana as compared with tobacco. NEJM. 1988;318:347-351.


Effects on fetus, unborn, genetics:

Cornelius MD, Taylor PM, Geva D, Day NL, Prenatal tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents: effects on offspring gestational age, growth, and morphology. Pediatrics 1995;95:738-43

Dahl RE, et al. A Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Marijuana Use. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 1995;149:145-50

Day NL, et al. Effect of Prenatal Marijuana Exposure on the Cognitive Development of Offspring at Age Three. Neurotoxicology and Teratology1994;16:169-175

__ed, P.A., Marijuana use by pregnant women: Neurobehavioral effects in neonates. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 1980 6:415-424.

Fried, P.A., Watkinson. B., and Willan. Marijuana use during pregnancy and decreased length of Gestation. American Journal of Obstet. Gynecol. 1984;150:23-27.

Fried PA, Life Sciences, 1995;56:2159-2168

Greenland S, Richwald GA, Honda GD, The effects of marijuana use during pregnancy. A study in a low risk home-delivered population. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 1983;11:359-366 [dysfunctional labor]

Hingson, R., et al. Effects of maternal drinking and marijuana use on fetal growth and development. Pediatrics. 1982;70:539-546.

Kline, J., Stein, Z., Hutzler, J. Cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana: varying associations with birthweight. International _#Journal of Epidemiology. 1987;16:44-51.

Zimmerman, S., and Zimmerman, A.M. Genetic effects of marijuana. The International Journal of Addictions. 1990-1991;25:19-23.

Zuckerman, B., et. al. Effects of maternal marijuana and cocaine use on fetal growth. NEJM. 1989;320:762-768.


Hormonal effects:

Barnett, G., and Chiang, C.N. Effects of marijuana on testosterone in male subjects. J. Theor Biol. 1983;104:685-692.

Mendelson, J.H., et al. Marijuana smoking suppresses leuteinizing hormone in women. Journal of Pharm. Exp. Therapeutics. 1986;237:862-866.

Kolodny, R.C., et al. Depression of plasma testosterone with acute marijuana administration. The Pharmacology of Marijuana, Raven Press, New York 1976;217:225

Mendelson, J.H., Mello, N.K., and Ellingvoe, J. Acute effects of marijuana _>g on prolactin levels in human females. The Journal of Pharm. and Exp. Therap. 1985;232::220-222.

Mueller, B.A., Daling, J.R., Weiss, N.S., and Moore, D.R. Recreational drug use and the risk of primary infertility. Epidemiology. 1990; 1:195-200.


Immune/ Infection effects:

Buckley, J., A case-control study of acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia: evidence for an association with marijuana exposure. Cannabis: Physiopathology, Epidemiology, Detection. CRC Press1993;155-162.

Cabral, G.A. and Vasquez, R. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol suppresses macrophage extrinsic anti-herpesvirus activity. Cannabis: Physiopathology, Epidemiology, Detection. CRC Press1993:137-153.

Fleisher, M., Winawer, S.J., and Zauber, A.G., Aspergillosis and marijuana. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1991;115:578-579.

Gross, G., Roussaki, A., _# H., Drees. N., Genital warts do not respond to systemic recombinant interferon alfa-2 treatment during cannabis consumption. Dermatologica 1991; 183:203-207

Murison, G., Chubb, C.B., Maeda, S., Gemmell, M.A. and Huberman, E. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1987;84:5414-5418.

Robison, L.L., et. al. Maternal drug use and risk of childhood non-lymphoblastic leukemia among offspring. Cancer. 1989; 63:1904-1911.

Ramirez, R.J. Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis: newly recognized hazard of marijuana plant hunters. American Journal of Medicine. 1990; 88: 5-60N-5-62N.

Taylor, D.N., et al. Salmonellosis associated with marijuana: a multistate outbreak traced by plasmid fingerprinting. NEJM. 1982;306:1249-1254.


Trauma/ traffic effects:

Brookoff, D., Campbell, E.A., and Shaw, L.M. The underreporting of cocaine-related trauma: drug abuse warning network reports vs. hospital toxicology tests. American Journal of Public Health. 1993;83:369-371.

Gerostamoulos,J. and Drummer, O.H., Incidence of psychoactive cannabinoids in drivers killed in motor vehicle accidents. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 1993;38:649-656.

Gjerde, H., and Kinn, G., Impairment in drivers due to cannabis in combination with other drugs. Forensic Science International. 1991;50:57-60.

Kirby, J.M., Maull, K.I., and Fain, W. Comparability of alcohol and drug use in injured drivers. Southern Medical Journal. 1992;85:800-802.

Marzuk, P.M., et al. Prevalence of recent cocaine use among motor vehicle fatalities in New York City. JAMA. 1990;263:250-256.

Soderstrom, C.A., et al. Marijuana and alcohol use among 1023 trauma patients. Cannabis; _-gy, Epidemiology, Detection. CRC press 1993;79-91.


Legalization:

Clayton, R.R. and Leukefeld, C.G. The prevention of drug use among youth: implications of "legalization." Journal of Primary Prevention. 1992;12:289-302.

The Effect of Marijuana Decriminalization on Hospital Emergency Room Drug Episodes: 1975-1978 [significantly higher number of DAWN marijuana episodes in states who had decriminalized marijuana]


Medicinal issues:

Bonner, R. Marijuana rescheduling petitions.57 Federal Register. (1992):10499-10508.

Chang, et al. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1979;91:819-924.

Doblin, R.E., and Kleiman, M.A.R. Marijuana as antiemetic medicine: A survey of oncologists experiences and attitudes. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 1991;9:1314-1319. (Note: I don't know why Dr. Voth would include this in support of his ideas. It clearly seems to show results opposed to his ideas.)

Lee PR, Letter to Congressman Dan Hamburg, United States Public Health Service, July 13, 1994.

Levitt, et al. Randomized double blind comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinol and marijuana as chemotherapy antiemetics. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 1984:91

Sallan, S.S., et al. Antiemetics effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. NEJM. 1975;293:795-797.

Marinol. Physicians Desk Reference. 1993;46:1985-1987

Schwartz RH, Beveridge RA, Marijuana as an Antiemetic Drug: How Useful Is It Today? Opinions from Clinical Oncologists. Journal of Addictive Diseases. 1994;13:53-65

Schwartz, R H., Drug Reform: The Dutch Experience. Hospital Practice. ;26:93-100

Young, F.L., Opinion and recommended ruling, marijuana rescheduling petition. United States Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration. Docket 86-22. Sept, 1988. (Note: I don't know why Dr. Voth would include this one either. The full text is online here, and it doesn't support his ideas at all. Read it yourself.)

Voth, E A, Brookoff, D. Book Review of Marijuana The Forbidden Medicine. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1994;120:348.


General drug issues

DeLeon, G. Some Problems with the Anti-Prohibitionist Position on Legalization of Drugs. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 1994;13:35-57

U.S. General Accounting Office, General Government Division. Confronting the Drug Problem--Debate Persists on Enforcement and Alternative Approaches, GAO/GGD-93-82. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives. Washington, D.C.: United States General Accounting Office, General Government Division, 1993.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Drug Abuse and Drug Abuse Research--The Third Triennial Report to Congress from the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, D.C.:Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, DHHS Publication no. (ADM) 91-1704, 1991.

Gold MS, The Good News About Drugs and Alcohol. New York, Villard Books, 1991. pg 245.

Institute for Health Policy, Brandeis University. Substance Abuse: The Nation's Number One Health Problem--Key Indicators for Policy. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, October, 1993.

U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Chapter III, Section 5--The costs of illegal drug use. In: Drugs, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System, NCJ-133652, 126-127. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1992.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Main Findings 1991, DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 93-1980. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, 1993.

Rydell CP, Everingham SS, Controlling Cocaine: Supply Versus Demand Programs. Santa Monica, Ca.:Rand 1994.

Gostin LO, Brandt AM. Criteria for evaluating a ban on the advertisement of cigarettes. Journal of the American Medical Association 269:904-909, 1993.

DeLeon, G. Some Problems with the Anti-Prohibitionist Position on Legalization of Drugs. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 1994;13:35-57.

U.S. General Accounting Office, General Government Division. Confronting the Drug Problem--Debate Persists on Enforcement and Alternative Approaches, GAO/GGD-93-82. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives. Washington, D.C.: United States General Accounting Office, General Government Division, 1993.

Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, Public Law 59-384.

Harrison Narcotics Act. Public Law 63-47.

Musto DF, The American Disease--Origins of Narcotic Control. New York, Oxford University Press, 1987.

Brecher EM, Editor. Licit and illicit drugs. Boston, Little, Brown, and Co, 1972:267-306, 335-451 (Note: This definitely does not support cannabis prohibition.)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Drug Abuse and Drug Abuse Research--The Third Triennial Report to Congress from the Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services. Washington, D.C.:Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, DHHS Publication no. (ADM) 91-1704, 1991.

Berman AL, Schwartz RH, Suicide Attempts Among Adolescent Drug Users. AJDC 1990;144:310-314.

Rivara FP, Mueller BA, Fligner CL, Luna G, Raisys VA, Drug Use in Trauma Victims. The Journal of Trauma 1989; 29:462-470.

Committee on Drug Abuse of the Council on Psychiatric Services, Position Statement on Psychoactive Substance Use and Dependence: Update on Marijuana and Cocaine. Am J Psychiatry 1987;144:698-702.

Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S.C. 811.

Institute for Health Policy, Brandeis University. Substance Abuse: The Nation's Number One Health Problem--Key Indicators for Policy. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, October, 1993.

U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Chapter III, Section 5--The Costs of Illegal Drug Use. In: Drugs, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System, NCJ-133652, 126-127. U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1992.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Main Findings 1991, DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 93-1980. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, 1993.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health. National Survey Results on Drug Use, from The Monitoring the Future Study 1975-1993. NIH Publication No. 94-3809 1994.

Erickson PG, Prospects of Harm Reduction for Psychostimulants. In Nick Heath (ed) Psychoactive Drugs and Harm Reduction: From Faith to Science. London, Whurr Publishers, 1993:196.

Nadelman E, Cohen P, Locher U, Stimson G, Wodak A, and Drucker E, Position Paper on Harm Reduction. The Harm Reduction Approach to Drug Control: International Progress. The Lindesmith Center, 888 Seventh Ave, New York, NY. 10106. 1994 (Note: This one makes me wonder again if Dr. Voth has read the items he has submitted.)

Kleiman MAR, The Drug Problem and Drug Policy: What Have We Learned from the Past Four Years. Testimony to the United States Senate Committee of the Judiciary, April 29, 1993.

Maguire, K., ed. Sourcebook of Criminal Statistics Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice. 1992:491.

Model KE, The Effect of Marijuana Decriminalization on Hospital Emergency Room Drug Episodes: 1975-1978. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 1993; 88: 737-747.

Kleber H, MD, Our Current Approach to Drug Abuse-Progress, Problems, Proposals. NEJM 1994;330:361-365.

Board of Trustees, The American Medical Association. Drug Abuse in the United States: Strategies for Prevention. JAMA 1991;265: 2102-2107.

Romer D, Using Mass Media to Reduce Adolescent Involvement in Drug Trafficking. Pediatrics. 1994;93: 1073-1077.

Voth E, Drug Policy Options. Letter to the Editor in JAMA 1995;273:459.

DuPont RL, Voth EA. Drug Legalization, Harm Reduction, and Drug Policy. Annals of Internal Medicine 1995;123:461-465.

Zwart WM, Mensink C., “Alcohol, Tabak, Drugs en Gokken in cijfers,” National Institute for Alcohol and Drugs, 1993, Rotterdam.


 

Contents | Feedback | Search | DRCNet Home Page | Join DRCNet

DRCNet Library | Schaffer Library | The Drug Legalization Debate


Library Highlights

Drug Information Articles

Drug Rehab