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|Major Studies of Drugs and Drug Policy|
|Canadian Senate Special Committee on Illegal Drugs|
|Volume I - General Orientation|
Cannabis, marijuana, pot, grass, kif, grifa, ganja–from so many cultures, so many names for the drug made from cannabis sativa indica, one of the two main varieties of hemp. Beyond these various names are also different ways in which the drug is used and the context of those various usages: here marijuana is rolled with cigarette tobacco in a cigarette paper (joint), there kif is smoked in a pipe and elsewhere ganja is smoked in a water pipe. Sometimes it is baked into cookies or cakes. The French pétard, the English joint or the Indian bangh are all names for the product consumed and, at the same time designate different usages: marijuana is most often composed of the plant's flowering tops and dried, powdered leaves; sinsemilla is a preparation consisting of female tops of a private variety of seeds, whereas Indian ganja consists solely of fertilized flowering tops.
These names are not mere accidents
of folklore: like other substances, cannabis has codified uses that vary across
cultures. The words used to name the same drug refer to a set of relations that
populations of various cultures maintain with it, a kind of code of manners,
but also of reasons to use the drug. In North America (United States and
Canada), marijuana has long been identified with youth and the sexual
liberation of the 1960s; in India and Jamaica, ganja has religious aspects which it does not necessarily possess
in the West; and this same drug has still other cultural meanings in the
Maghreb. We return to this question in Chapter 6.
This chapter first describes the
cannabis plant and the various forms in which it becomes a consumer drug. We
then take a brief look at the geographical origin of the cannabis plant and the
routes along which it circulates in the modern world, noting at the same time
its current modes of production (soil‑based and hydroponic) which have
developed in certain regions of Canada. We then describe the pharmacokinetics
of the cannabis plant, in particular its main active ingredients and their
metabolism in the body.
There are a number of varieties of cannabis.
The best known are Cannabis sativa,
Cannabis indica and Cannabis
ruderalis. Cannabis sativa is the
main variety which grows in virtually any climate. In dry, sandy and slightly
alkaline soils, it yields plants that can reach up to seven meters in
height. In Canada, the preferred variety for soil‑based cultivation is Cannabis indica, which is a shorter
plant, but with higher concentrations of D9‑THC
(the main active ingredient of cannabis, discussed more fully below). There are
male and female plants. In general, female plants are richer in D9‑THC
than the males, which are often smaller and bare of leaves. D9‑THC
is mainly found in the resin secreted by the flowering tops.
Flowering tops and leaves of cannabis
It appears that cannabis was first
known in China some 6,000 years ago, then subsequently in India, then the
Middle East, Africa, Mexico and South America. Cannabis can be cultivated in a
number of ways, in greenhouses or hydroponically, which makes it possible to
increase plant productivity and achieve high D9‑THC
levels. Methods for genetically selecting the best greenhouse varieties and
crops have also made it possible to increase the active ingredient content.
Male and female cannabis plants
Marijuana, which is a Mexican term
initially used in reference to cheap tobacco, but which subsequently designated
certain parts of the cannabis plant, is generally green or brown in colour and
produces a characteristic odour when burned. It resembles oregano or coarse
tea. Marijuana comes from all the parts of the plant
once dried. In this form, its THC content is lower; THC content is increased by
selecting the flowering tops of the female plant. Dried and coarsely powdered,
marijuana is most often rolled into thin cigarettes together with cigarette
tobacco (joint), and sometimes smoked in a pipe or, less frequently, in cigar
form. A typical joint contains between 0.5 and 1 g of cannabis. Like
hash, it can also be baked into cookies and cakes, and be drunk as an herbal
tea as well. A number of specialists told us that domestic cannabis made
through controlled greenhouse production costs approximately $100 an ounce, and
is then sold on the street at average prices ranging between $200 and $250.
While we consider this estimated production cost high, the only other available
studies concern production costs in developing countries such as Morocco.
Marijuana and joints
also known as hash, shit, kif (in North Africa) and charas (in India), is the viscous resin produced by the marijuana
plant and obtained by pounding then compressing the dried leaves and flowering
tops to obtain what, in France, is called a "barrette" or here a cube
or block. It takes approximately 45 to 75 kg of cannabis to produce
1 kg of hash, which is sold in light brown to black pieces of hard or soft
consistency. It is frequently smoked, alone or mixed with tobacco or marijuana,
in a cigarette (joint), pipe or, more rarely, cigar. It may also be baked into
cookies or cakes. The D9‑THC
content of hash is generally between 3% and 6% in normal production. As is the
case for cannabis, D9‑THC
content can be increased through growing methods and resin concentrations to achieve
levels of more than 10% on average. Slightly more expensive than marijuana,
hashish sells for approximately $300 to $350 an ounce on the street.
There are two other cannabis‑based
products, marijuana and hashish oils, which are extracted from resin using 90‑proof
alcohol, which is subsequently evaporated through exposure to the sun. These
oils are viscous, greenish brown to blackish, foul‑smelling liquids, with
generally higher cannabinoid concentrations of up to 30% to 60% D9‑THC.
Oils are generally dripped onto cigarette paper or tobacco then smoked. They
are scarce and more expensive than other products.
The following passage from a report
prepared by Labrousse and Romero for the Observatoire
français des drogues et des toxicomanies (OFDT; French Monitoring Centre
for Drugs and Drug Addictions) in 2001 on cannabis production in Morocco
describes the various stages of production very clearly.
Kif is the name given to the cannabis plant as a whole. (…) Cut and dried in the sun (generally on rooftops) for at least a month and a half, it is preserved in houses for several months under plastic tarpaulins. Chopped by hand with a special knife on a board, it is then mixed with tobacco for smoking. The traditional mixture consists of one‑third kif, two‑thirds tobacco and is smoked in a sebsi, a long wooden pipe with a terracotta or stone pipe bowl.
Chira is the powder resulting from solidification of the small resin drops exuded by the flowering tops of the female plants. To separate the resin from the dried plants, processors pound or shake the plants over a stretched thin nylon veil that serves as a screen. The first powder to fall, golden beige in colour, is called sigirma. This is the top quality, so‑called double‑zero powder which is said to contain as much as 20% THC. The next powder to fall is called hamda, which is mixed with plant waste giving it a greenish colour. Hamda is lightly screened to yield various product qualities: zero, no. 1, no. 2, no. 3 and no. 4 (the lowest quality), containing respectively from 10% to 2% THC. (…) It takes approximately 100 kg of kif to obtain 1 kg of top‑quality hashish.
Peasants (…) told us that the rest of the operation, when carried out by traffickers, took place in ostensibly secret buildings isolated in the mountains. (…) There the powder is placed in cellophane bags, then heated and compressed to yield resin or hashish, readied for the market in the form of small bars (generally 250 grams) called tbisla or "little plate". (…) The "double zero" quality, which derives its name from the two holes made in the bar with the end of a lit cigarette, is reserved for domestic consumption and preferred customers. Misinformed foreign customers often receive hash that has been cut with black polish, glue, henna, fig, earth or even medication.
(…) Cannabis oil is derived from no. 3 and no. 4 quality resins and produced by diluting hashish in a container with pharmaceutical alcohol. After six to eight hours of distillation, the liquid is filtered and stirred until all the alcohol has evaporated. Local production of this high value‑added liquid (it takes 10 kg of hashish to produce one liter of oil) is less marginal than is generally thought.
Labrousse, A. and L. Romero (2001) Rapport sur la situation du cannabis dans le RIF marocain. Paris: OFDT.
Where does the cannabis and hashish
available in Canada come from? What quantities are imported and how much is
produced locally? What routes are used to transport the drugs between
provinces? What quantities are exported to other countries? What is the monetary
value of this market? These are constantly recurring questions. They serve
various purposes: to underline the scope of the drug “problem” generally, to
explain the power of organized crime which makes money from drugs, as well as
to substantiate the discrepancy between the size of the problem and the limited
resources governments allocated to reducing supply. But this information can
also assist in better understanding the extent of the problem experienced by
peasants in the various producer countries, the ecological issues raised by the
cultivation of drugs, as well as the strategic position of drugs in geopolitics.
The cultivation of cannabis is the
most widespread of all illegal drugs, which is not surprising since, not only
does the plant grow readily in a number of climates, but it also requires
little processing before becoming marijuana. According to the 2000 report of
the United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP):
Over the last decade, 120 countries reported illicit cultivation of cannabis in their territory. Interpol identifies 67 source countries for cannabis through seizures made in 1998. (…) Estimating the extent of illicit cannabis cultivation, production and trafficking is much more difficult than for other plant‑based drugs because of the significant amount of wild cannabis growth, the diverse nature of cultivation and the sheer magnitude of trafficking. In contrast to other plant‑based narcotic drugs, illicit cannabis products can originate from three qualitatively distinct sources of supply: outdoor illicit cultivation; naturalized cannabis plant populations (wild growing cannabis); and plants cultivated indoors by means of sophisticated growing technology. (…) The large number of countries reporting an increase in cannabis consumption (two‑thirds of all countries reporting drug abuse trends in 1996) would suggest that overall production must have increased; but this is only partly confirmed by seizure data. (…) Cultivation estimated (including wild growth), based on reports from Member States in the 1990s, ranges from 670,000 hectares to 1,850,000 hectares. Production estimates vary by a factor of 30, from 10,000 tonnes to 300,000 tonnes. Linking production and consumption estimates, UNDCP estimates world wide cannabis production to be at about 30,000 tonnes. 
In their study, Labrousse and Romero state that, according to the Department of Agriculture, cannabis was produced on 75,000 hectares in 2000. (By comparison, in its 2000 report, the ODCCP cites the figure of 50,000 hectares in cannabis production in Morocco, an official figure provided by the Department of the Interior.)
Based on their own work in the field, they estimate that 90,000 hectares were in production in 1999 and between 110,000 and 120,000 in 2001. That production involved approximately 200,000 families, between one and one and a half million persons. Based on those areas, production would be between 1,600 and 3,000 tonnes, after deducting the quantities of kif set aside for national consumption.
Labrousse and Romero, op. cit.
The work of the team at France's Observatoire géopolitique des drogues,
under the direction of Alain Labrousse, is exemplary in the field. The box
from the same report produced for the OFDT in 2001, describes a three‑month
field project in which the authors cross‑checked data from various
In particular, it has been observed
that, when linked to the population of potential cannabis users (which the
Centre estimates at some 120 million persons), the estimated global
production of 30,000 tonnes is much nearer the 10,000 tonne floor than the
300,000 tonne ceiling.
According to the UNDCP, the main producers are Colombia and Mexico (marijuana) and Morocco (hashish). According to the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), Morocco, Afghanistan and Pakistan are the main sources of hashish and Colombia, Niger and South Africa of cannabis. Lastly, according to Labrousse, marijuana production is exploding, with Colombia becoming again the major producer it was in the 1970s, and production rapidly increasing in West Africa (Nigeria, Ghana, Congo, Ivory Coat, Senegal), although the great steppes of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Kazakhstan, Kirghizistan, Ukraine, Belarus and Azerbaijan) have virtually unlimited export potential, while Afghanistan and Pakistan likely produce 2,000 tonnes of hashish, the equivalent of Morocco's production. In addition, Canada has been a cannabis exporting country for a number of years now.
Traditionally, the cannabis
available in Canada comes mainly from Mexico, Jamaica and the countries of the
horn of Africa, while hashish originates mainly in Asia and the Middle East:
The hashish market in Central Eastern Canada is known world‑wide. U.S. criminals are among the international traffickers who orchestrate multi‑tonne shipments of this drug from Pakistan directly to Montreal by mothership or container. In 2001, some shipments transited the United Arab Emirates, Africa and Europe before reaching Canada. Multi‑kilo quantities are also imported from Jamaica by couriers travelling on board commercial airlines. 
a large portion of cannabis sold in the Canadian market was of foreign origin
until the 1980s, the situation has radically changed since that time. It is
estimated that national production has now supplanted imports. In its 1999 report,
the Royal Canadian Mounted Police writes:
It is estimated that more than 50% of the marihuana available in Canada is produced domestically. Of the foreign marihuana seized in or en route to Canada in 1999, at least 5,535 kilograms originated from Jamaica, 825 kilograms from South Africa and 860 kilograms from Mexico. Foreign shipments arrive directly into Canadian ports of entry or transit through the United States before reaching Canada. On June 11, 1999, U.S. Customs intercepted 2,464 kg of Jamaican marihuana and 141 kg of hash oil at Newark, New Jersey in a marine container bound for Montreal. Furthermore in Project JOULE on June 20, 1999, 2,617 kg of Jamaican marihuana destined for Canada were seized in Stuart, Florida. 
How much cannabis and hashish are
available in Canada? What is the monetary value of those drugs? It is in fact
impossible to answer these questions, for obvious reasons, since the drugs are
illegal. While we know the amount of tobacco produced and sold in cigarette form,
and the volume of alcohol produced or imported and consumed, and sales turnover
can be calculated in both cases on the basis of those volumes, it is impossible
to do this for illegal drugs.
For a time, the United Nations
International Drug Control Program suggested that the total value of the
illegal drug "industry" was approximately US $400 billion,
greater than the oil industry. The total value of cannabis
obviously cannot be separated from that amount, even though we know that the
largest number of persons who use drugs use cannabis. No one really knows how
or on what basis these figures are advanced, whether they were produced using a
rigorous calculation method or merely noted down on a napkin over a meal. And yet they often serve as a reference.
In a series of articles published on the illicit drug issue in 2001, The Economist cited the
$400 billion amount before suggesting a more conservative estimate of
US $150 billion. By comparison, the value of the
pharmaceutical industry is near US $300 billion, that of the tobacco
industry $204 billion and that of the alcoholic beverages industry
Since the authors provide itemized
accounts of their calculation methods, we will now continue our analysis of the
Cannabis is a not very demanding plant that grows in poor soils, which it quite quickly renders unfit for any other form of agriculture. As a result of the illegal nature of this crop, the income it generates is disproportionately high compared to that from legal food and cash crops. It is also a non‑perishable product that can be sold from the home, into an ever certain market and on credit. In particular, it enables local populations to improve their living conditions and opens the way to initiatives by the peasants themselves.
Estimates of per‑hectare cannabis income vary with soil type, rainfall, degree of irrigation, whether the cannabis is processed into chira (powder), period of sale and other factors. In addition, researchers give various estimates based on the same criteria. This is due to the fact that it is difficult to obtain reliable data from mistrustful peasant farmers. Income from the production of unprocessed kif varies, depending on sources, from 12,450 to 210,000 French francs per hectare.
(…) while cannabis is highly profitable on irrigated perimeters, it is much less so on pluvial lands, particularly in poor years. (…) Many peasant farmers who likely cultivate only 1.5 ha to 3 ha (non irrigated) of cannabis, earn, in poor years, only 20,000 F to 40,000 F from that crop to support families of, in many cases, more than 10 persons.
(But) cannabis is 12 to 46 times more profitable than grain crops.
In 1997, based on production of 1,397 tonnes of hashish for the Rif as a whole, Pascual Moreno estimated the return for Moroccan producers (from the peasant farmer to the major trafficker) at $1.816 billion. Since a certain number of Moroccan traffickers operate outside the country, Moreno estimated the return to the Moroccan economy from cannabis profits at $2 billion, compared to $750 million for textile exports, $460 million from foreign investments and $1.26 billion for tourism. He also estimated the profits of European traffickers at $3 billion (apparently not including street sales).
However, since cannabis is more profitable than any other crop, peasant farmers tend to abandon food crops and to supply themselves from the market. As a result, there is a growing food shortage in the region.
Labrousse and Romero (2001) op. cit.: 12‑15.
We know of no similar field work for
Canada or Mexico. In addition, in Canada, climatic conditions have stimulated
development of greenhouse and hydroponic crops, and the ratio of these
cultivation methods to soil cultivation methods is not known.
We therefore use the following
figures and data on cannabis production, cannabis and hashish imports and the
monetary value of those drugs in the Canadian market, with considerable
reservation and prudence.
According to the RCMP, "the annual production of marijuana in Canada
[is] at least in the 800 tonne range. This estimate appears overwhelming,
however investigators believe it is quite conservative, and it is supported by
intelligence and seizures of marijuana in plant and bulk forms." The same figures are stated in the
1998 and 2002 reports. Note as well that, at 800 tonnes, Canadian
production represents approximately 2.5% of global production, as stated by the
In its 1998‑1999 annual
report, the Observatoire géopolitique des drogues stated that, based on police
sources, the value of the illegal drug market in Canada was $7 billion to
$10 billion a year. For 2001, the RCMP estimated that
the market value of all illegal drugs was $18 billion. It is impossible to estimate the share of cannabis
and hashish in that total. As we most often do not know the calculation basis
for these estimates, they must also be prudently considered. As the Assistant
Deputy Solicitor General stated in his appearance before the Committee, the
calculation methods, based on the assumption that police and customs
organizations seize 10% of all drugs, are unscientific and unreliable. We nevertheless note an apparent
inconsistency: the seeming stagnation of cannabis production at 800 tonnes
and of hashish imports at 100 tonnes since 1998, as well as the declining
prices of heroin and cocaine in a stable, even declining market (RCMP reports)
are not consistent with the presumed doubling in total value of the drug market.
As a result, in dealing with these various estimates of the quantity of drugs
produced and monetary value of the drug market, the Committee often had the
impression that, ultimately, no one really knew how big it was.
With regard to hashish, the RCMP believes
is easier to estimate the quantity of hashish entering the Canadian market annually than the quantity of any other illegal drug. Unlike what is observed for other drugs, such as cocaine and marijuana, that can be found across Canada and the United States, hashish use in North America is a localized phenomenon. The drug is very popular in Quebec, Ontario and the Atlantic Provinces, whereas demand is limited elsewhere in Canada and supply is sporadic at best in the northeastern United States. Consequently, Montreal organized criminal groups are specialized in the massive importing of hashish and have a monopoly on its distribution in bulk. In view of these facts and of information on multi‑tonne hashish shipments seized in Canada and abroad and on those we know have entered the Canadian market, RCMP analysts estimate that at least 100 tonnes of the drug are imported into Canada each year. 
Canada is also an in-transit country
for drugs to the United States, and a significant portion of Canadian cannabis
is intended for export, in particular to that country.
Smuggling of Canadian marihuana to the United States remains a source of concern for enforcement officials on both sides of the border. Though this activity is particularly noticeable on the British Columbia–U.S. border, it is not limited to that province. There is intelligence that the Hell's Angels in Quebec are supplying marihuana to their U.S. counterparts. Intelligence also indicates that there is marihuana smuggling activity across the Great Lakes. Despite the foregoing, few U.S. marihuana seizures can be traced back to Canada. 
In 1999, Washington officials
suggested that Canada could be placed on the list of countries suspected of a
soft stance in the fight against drug production and trafficking. More
recently, officials of the Drug Enforcement Administration repeated that
Canada's trafficking in cannabis toward the United States was a significant
problem. One RCMP officer told a national newspaper that approximately 70% of
marijuana grown in Canada wound up in the United States, whereas, according to the 2002
report of the International Drug Control Agency, the figure was approximately
60%. We have heard, and RCMP officers
confirmed it, that cannabis from British Columbia has such a high value that it
was traded on par with cocaine. According to those police officers specialized
in the war on drugs, British Columbia's triple A quality cannabis is worth
approximately $4,000 a pound in Canada and one kilogram of cocaine is
currently worth US $11,000. However, while reference is made to this
supposition in the annual report for 1999, it is not confirmed:
Canadian marihuana is sometimes used as a currency to purchase cocaine that is warehoused in the U.S.A. The exchange ratio is about three to one. Exchanges of one to one have been rumoured but never substantiated. Furthermore, such a rate of exchange does not make sound commercial sense considering that a kilo of cocaine sells for $13,000 U.S. (in lots of 50 kilos or more) while the wholesale price of a kilo of marihuana ranges around $6,000 or $8,000 U.S. 
In its 2002 report, the RCMP merely
mentions the fact that Canadian cannabis is exchanged for cocaine, without
saying whether it is on an equal weights basis. We also note a certain
inconsistency here as the price of a kilogram of cocaine is expressed in US
dollars, whereas that of a kilogram of marijuana is expressed sometimes in
Canadian dollars, at other times in US dollars.
British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec
are the main producers in Canada. British Columbia's large production can be
attributed in particular to suitable climatic conditions, but there are
probably also sociocultural explanations, as the Pacific Coast mentality
explains in part why cannabis appears to have taken root there to a greater
Cannabis production in British
Columbia appears to have increased significantly over the past 10 years,
becoming, according to some analysts, one of the province's biggest industries
in terms of monetary value, which some analysts set at $6 billion,
whereas, according to some police officers, a conservative estimate would be
$4 billion. If marijuana sells for $225 an
ounce, at 16 ounces a pound, British Columbia would appear to produce the
equivalent of 550 tonnes of cannabis a year, more than two‑thirds of
the total amount of cannabis circulating in Canada.
Testifying in Richmond, B.C., on
14 May 2002, RCMP Superintendent Clapham said there were between
15,000 and 20,000 illegal cannabis production sites in British Columbia
(figures from the Drug Enforcement Administration), while RCMP narcotics
specialists, the next day, put the figure at 7,000. Regardless of the true
number, the figures, as may be seen, must necessarily be considered very
As to growing methods, soil‑based
production is still the most popular, but the more sophisticated, hydroponic
and aeroponic, methods are expanding, particularly
among criminal gangs that have the necessary infrastructure.
It is not uncommon to find indoor grow operations involving over 3,000 plants. Those figures vary considerably from one province to another, overall less than 10 percent of all marihuana seized in Canada was grown using hydroponics (a method of growing plants with the roots in nutrient mineral solutions rather than in soil). Indoor grow operations still rely mostly on soil‑based organic cultivation but hydroponics is gaining in popularity. Despite the availability of highly sophisticated technologies designed to increase the yield even more, most growers do not bother to go to such lengths, preferring simpler and proven methods. Marihuana remains the most popular illicit drug, both in terms of consumption and trafficking. The annual marihuana production has been estimated to be around five million plants. Given the relatively low cost of setting up a grow operation and the considerable profits it generates, this activity has become increasingly attractive, even to otherwise law‑abiding citizens. In the majority of regions, large operations are invariably run by outlaw motorcycle gangs, although Asian‑based organizations have been making inroads in British Columbia and Alberta. More and more groups are using "crop sitters" and other go‑betweens to tend their plantations. This hands‑off approach makes it difficult for police to link the operation to the people who are actually behind it. Outdoor crops are often grown on Crown lands located in remote areas in order to reduce the risk of detection. 
In all, with considerable
reservations as to the validity of the data, the Committee submits the
See in particular INSERM (2001) Cannabis.
Quels effets sur le comportement et la
santé ? Paris: Les Éditions Inserm,
page 143 passim; Ben Amar (in preparation); Wheelock, B.B.
(2002) Physiological and Psychological
Effects of Cannabis: Review of the Findings. Report prepared for the Senate
Special Committee on Illegal Drugs, Ottawa: Senate of Canada.
This section draws freely on various papers, in particular those by
Ben Amar (in preparation), of INSERM, op.
cit., and Pelc, I., (2002) (ed.) International
Scientific Conference on Cannabis, Brussels. In particular, we wish to
thank Professor Ben Amar for his permission to reproduce the plates.
On these questions, see in particular: McKim W.A. (2000)
"Cannabis" in McKim, W.A. (ed.) Drugs and Behaviour. An Introduction to Behavioral Pharmacology. Upper
Saddle River: Prentice Hall; Health Canada (1990) Straight Facts About Drugs and Drug Abuse. Ottawa: Department of Supply and Services; and
Comité permanent de lutte à la toxicomanie (2001) Drogues. Savoir plus. Risquer Moins. (Édition québécoise) Montréal:
United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (2001) World Drug Report 2001. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, pages 30‑32. Available on line at http://www.undcp.org/adhoc/world_drug_report_2000/report_2001‑01‑22_1.pdf.
Labrousse, A. (2000) Drogues. Un marché de dupes. Paris: éditions alternatives; see also
"L’approvisionnement des marchés des drogues dans l’espace Schengen."
Les Cahiers de la Sécurité Intérieure,
32, 2e trimestre 1998.
See, for example, in OGD (1996) Atlas
mondial des drogues. Paris: PUF.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (2002) Drug
Situation in Canada (2001). Ottawa: author.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (2000) Drug
Situation in Canada (1999). Ottawa: author.
UNDCP (2000) op. cit.
The Committee invited the Executive Director of UNDCP or a delegate to
testify before it, but the invitation was turned down.
 "Stumbling in the Dark", The Economist, July 28 - August 3, 2001.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (2000), op.cit.
World Geopolitics of Drugs (1999) Annual
Report 1998/1999. Paris:
WGD, page 178.
Mr. Paul Kennedy, Testimony before the Senate Special
Committee on Illegal Drugs, June 10, 2002.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (2000) op.
National Post, May 17, 2002. The Committee is interested, and
somewhat amused, to note that this article and a previous report on the Global
television network on May 13, 2002, outlining the concerns of American
representatives, followed the Committee's publication of its Discussion Paper.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (2000) op.
RCMP, private meeting.
Technique whereby the roots are suspended and sprayed regularly with
water enriched with nutrient material, still very rare and the effectiveness of
which remains to be proven. (Source: RCMP (2002)).
RCMP, Drug Situation in Canada (1999) op. cit..
Schaffer Library of Drug Policy
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Marihuana, A Signal of Misunderstanding - The Report of the US National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse
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