Own your ow legal marijuana business
Your guide to making money in the multi-billion dollar marijuana industry
Major Studies of Drugs and Drug Policy
The Report of the Canadian Government Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs - 1972

** editing not complete**

Chapter 2. Cannabis and Its Effects

REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

As noted in Chapter 1, the Commission has had access to several thousand papers and books dealing with cannabis. No attempt has been made to reference all available documents, either in the text or in the list presented here. This bibliography contains all documents directly referenced, as well as a selected list of other materials which have been most useful in preparing Chapter 2 and its annexes.

1. Abdel-Nabi, A. A., & El-Nagdi, A. Drug addiction in Egypt and its sociological aspects. Medico-LegalJournal, 1960, 28: 200-202.

2. Abel, E. L. Marijuana and memory. Nature, 1970, 227(5263): 1151-1152.

3. Abel, E. L. Effects of marihuana on solution of anagrams, memory and appetite. Nature, 1971, 23 1(5300): 260 26 1.

4. Abel, E. L. Marihuana and memory: Acquisition or retrieval? Science, 197 1, 173:1038 1040.

5. Abrams, A. L., Dessauer, B. L., & Shenker, 1. R. Marijuana and the pediatrician: An attitude survey. Pediatrics, 1970, 46(3): 462-464.

6. Adams, R., Loewe, S., Jelinek, C., & Wolff, H. Tetrahydrocannabinol homologs with marihuana activity. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 194i,63:1971-1973.

7. Addiction Research Foundation. Brief submitted to the Commission, Toronto, Ont., December, 1969.

8. Agurell, S., & Leander, K. Stability, transfer and absorption of cannabinoid constituents of cannabis (hashish) during smoking. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 1971, 8: 391 402.

9. Aldrich, M. R. Cannabis myths and folklore. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of New York, Buffalo, June, 1970.

10. Aldrich, M. R. A brief legal history of marijuana. Paper presented at the Western Institute of Drug Problems, Marijuana Conference, Portland, Oreg., August, 197 1.

11. Aldrich, M. R. Chemical warfare against marijuana. Unpublished manuscript, Marijuana Research Association, Mill Valley, Calif., 197 1.

12. Aldrich, M. R. (Marijuana Research Assocation, Mill Valley, Calif.) Personal communication to the Commission, 197 1.

13. Allen, J. R., & West, L. J. Flight from violence: Hippies and the green rebellion. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1968, 125(3): 364-370.

14. Allentuck, S., & Bowman, K. M. The psychiatric aspects of marihuana intoxication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1942, 99(2): 248-25 1.

15. American Medical Association, Council on Mental Health and Committee on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence. Dependence on cannabis (marihuana). Journal of the American MedicalAssociation, 1967, 201(6): 368-37 1.

16. Ames, F. A clinical and metabolic study of acute intoxication with Cannabis sativa and its role in the model psychoses. Journal of Mental Science, 1958, 104:972-999.

17. Andersen, J. M., Nielsen, E., Schow, J., Steentoft, A., & Worm, K. A specific

method for the demonstration of cannabis intake by TLC of urine. (Letter to the editor) Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica, 197 1, 29(l): 111-112.

18. Anderson, J. E., & Ridley, T. Cannabis related problems: Preliminary working paper. Unpublished Commission research paper, April, 197 1.

19. Andrews, G., & Vinkenoog, S. (Eds.) The book of grass: An anthology of Indian hemp. New York: Grove Press, 1967.

20. Anker, J. L., Milman, D. H., Kahan, S. A., & Valenti, C. Drug usage and related patterns of behavior in university students: 1. General survey and marihuana use. Journal of the American College Health Association, 1971, 19(3): 178-186. 21. Annis, H. M., Klug, R., & Blackwell, D. Drug use among high school students in Timmins. Unpublished manuscript. Project J-183, Sub-study 1-38 & 39 & B 1 -7 1. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, 197 1.

22. Anslinger, H. J., & Cooper, C. R. Marijuana: Assassin of youth. American Magazine, 1937, 124: 18-19; 150-153.

23. Asuni, T. Socio-psychiatric problems of cannabis in Nigeria. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1964, 16(2): 17-28.

24. Australia, Senate Select Committee. Drug trafficking and drug abuse. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 197 1.

25. Ausubel, D. P. Drug addiction: Physiological, psychological, and sociological aspects. New York: Random House, 1958.

26. Baker, A. A. (Hospital Advisory Service, Sutton, Surrey, England) Personal communication to the Commission, August, 197 1.

27. Baker, A. A., & Lucas, E. G. Some hospital admissions associated with cannabis. Lancet, 1969, 1(7586): 148.

28. Ball, J. C., Chambers, C. D., & Ball, M. J. The association of marihuana smoking with opiate addiction in the United States. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, 1968, 59(2): 171-182.

29. Barash, L. A review of hemp cultivation in Canada. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1.

30. Barber, T. X. LSD, marihuana, yoga and hypnosis. Chicago: Aldine, 1970.

31. Barratt, E. S. Marijuana research: Overview of the University of Texas Medical Branch project. Unpublished manuscript, University of Texas, Galveston, 1971. 1 32. Barratt, E. S. (Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Tex.) Personal communication to the Commission, December, 1971.

33. Barratt, E. S., & Adams, P. The effects of chronic marijuana administration on brain functioning in cats. Unpublished manuscript, University of Texas, Galveston, 1971.

34. Bartolucci, G., Fryer, L., Perris, C., & Shagass, C. Marijuana psychosis: 14, case report. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 1969, 14(l): 77-79.

35. Bartova, A., & Birmingham, M. K. Effect of tetrahydrocannabir'Ol deoxycorticosterone (DOC) on brain and adrenal NADH-oxidase activitYPaper to be presented at the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Atlantic City, April 15 17, 1972.

36. Basharn, A. L. Soma. In G. Andrews, & S. Vinkenoog (Eds.), The book of grass: An anthology of Indian hemp. New York: Grove Press, 1967. Pp. 1-3.

37. Beaubrun, M. The pros and cons of cannabis use in Jamaica. Unpublished manuscript, working paper for Panel on Youth and Drugs, Costa Rica, January 8, 1971.

38, Beaubrun, M. (Department of Psychiatry, University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica) Personal communications to the Commission, April and May, 1971.

39. Becker, H. S. Becoming a marihuana user. American Journal of Sociology, 1953, 59: 235 242.

40. Becker, H. S. Marihuana use and social control. Social Problems, 1955, 3: 35- 44. 41. Becker, H. S. Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. Glencoe, N.Y.: The Free Press, 1963.

42. Becker, H. S. History, culture and subjective experience: An exploration of the social bases of drug-induced experiences. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1967, 8(3): 163-176.

43. Beckstead, H. (Pharmaceutical Laboratory, Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Ont.) Personal communication to the Commission, March, 1971.

44. Beech, C. E., & Gregersen, A. 1. Three year follow-up study: Drug addiction clinic, Mimico. Canadian Journal of Corrections, 1964, 6(2): 211-224. (See also Roland and Teste, 1958)

45. Benabud, A. Psycho-pathological aspects of the cannabis situation in Morocco: Statistical data for 1956. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1957, 9: 1-16. 46. Benson, V. M. Marihuana "study" critique. (Letter to the editor) Journal of theAmericanMedicalAssociation, 1971,217(10): 1391.

47. Bensusan, A. D. Marihuana withdrawal symptoms. (Letter to the editor) British MedicalJournal, 1971, 3(5766): 112.

48. Ben-Zvi, Z., Mechoulam, R., Edery, H., & Porath, G. 6Beta-hydroxy-Al- tetrahydrocannabinol: Synthesis and biological activity. Science, 1971, 174: 95 1 952. 49. Bercht, C. A. L., Kiippers, F. J. E. M., Lousberg, R. J. J. C., & Salemink, C. A. Volatile constituents of Cannabis sativa, L. U.N. Secretariat, 1971, ST/ SOA/SER. S/29.

50. Bernhardson, G. Cannabis-psykoser. Ldkartidningen (Stockholm), 1969, 66(12): 1230-1234.

51. Bey, D. R., & Zecchinelli, V. A. Marijuana as a coping device in Vietnam. Military Medicine, 1971, 136(5): 448 450.

52. Bialos, D. S. Adverse marijuana reactions: A critical examination of the literature with selected case material. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1970, 127(6): 119-123.

53. Biernacki, P., & Davis, F. "Turning off": A study of ex-marijuana users. Paper presented at the Conference on Drug Use and Drug Sub-cultures, Asilomar, Calif., February, 1970.

54. Bilodeau, L., & Jacob, A. La prevalence de Pusage des drogues de 1969 d 1971, chez les etudiants du secondaire et du collegial de l7le de Montreal: Que1ques resultats generaux. Quebec: Office de la Pr6vention et du Traitement de I'Alcoolisme et des Autres Toxicomanies, March 5, 1971.

55. Binder, A. An experimental approach to driver evaluation using alcohol drinkers and marihuana smokers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1971, 3: 237 256.

56. Bloomquist, E. R. Marijuana: Social benefit or social detriment? California Medicine, 1967, 106: 346-353.

57. Bloomquist, E. R. Marijuana. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Glencoe Press, 1968. 58. Blum, R. H. Mind altering drugs and dangerous behavior: Dangerous drugs. In United States President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. Task Force Report: Narcotics and Drug Abuse, Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967. Pp. 21-39. 59. Blum, R. H., & Associates. Society and drugs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969. 60. Blum, R. H., & Associates. Students and drugs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969.

61. Blumer, H. The world ofyouthful drug use. ADD Center project: Final report. Berkeley, Calif.: School of Criminology, University of California, 1967.

62. Borgen, L. A., & Davis, W. M. Effects of chronic A 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on pregnancy in the rat. Pharmacologist, 1970, 12(2): 259. 63. Borgen, L. A., Davis, W. M., & Pace, H. D. Effects of A 9 tetrahydrocannabinol on pregnancy and offspring in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1971, 20: 480-486. 64. Borkenstein, R. F., Crowther, R. F., Shumate, R. P., Ziel, W. B., & Zylman, R. The role of the drinking driver in traffic accidents. Bloomington, Ind.: Department of Police Administration, Indiana University, 1964.

65. Borkenstein, R. F., & Smith, W. H. The breathalyzer and its applications. Medicine, Science and the Law, 1962, 2: 13 -22. 66. Boroffka, A. Mental illness and Indian hemp in Lagos. East African Medical Journal, 1966, 43(9): 377-384. 67. Bos6, B. C., Saifi, A. Q., & Bhagwat, A. W. Observations on the pharmacological actions of cannabis indica, Part 11. Archives internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie, 1964, 147(1-2): 2 8 5 -2 90. 68. Boughey, H. Pot scenes East and West. In J. L. Simmons (Ed.), Marihuana: Myths and realities. North Hollywood: Brandon House, 1967. Pp. 24-44.

69, Bouquet, J. Marihuana intoxication. Journal of the American Medic", Association, 1944, 124: 1010-1011.

70. BouquetJ Cannabis.BulletinonNarcotics, 1950,2(4): 14-30.

71. Bouquet, J. Cannabis. Bulletin on Narcotics, 195 1, 3(l): 22-45.

72. Bourassa, M. La marijuana et la recherche. Toxicomanies, 1971, 4(l): 19-50,

73. Bourhill, C. J. G. The smoking of dagga (Indian hemp) among the native races of South Africa and the resultant evils. Unpublished doctoral dissertation Department of Medicine, University of Edinburgh, 1913.

74. Bowman, M. (Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal' P.Q.) Personal communications to the Commission, November, 1971 and February, 1972.

75. Boyce, S. S. Hemp (Cannabis sativa). New York: Orange Judd, 1900.

76. Boyd, E. S., Boyd, E. H., Muchmore, J. S., & Brown, L. E. Effects of two tetrahydrocannabinois and of pentobarbital on cortico-cortical evoked responses in the squirrel monkey. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1971, 176(2): 480-488.

77. Brau, J. L. Histoire de la drogue. Paris: Claude Tchou, 1968.

78. Braude, M. C. Toxicology and teratology of marihuana and constituents. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, San Francisco, March, 197 1.

79. Braude, M. C. (National Institute of Mental Health, Betheseda, Md.) Personal communication to the Commission, November, 197 1.

80. Braude, M. C., Monsaert, R., & Truitt, E. B., Jr. Some pharmacological correlates to marihuana use. Seminars in Drug Therapy, 1971, 1(3).

81. Brill, H. Testimony. In Massachusetts vs. Leis & Weiss. Superior Court, Suffolk, Mass., September, 1967, 6: 121-200.

82. Brill, H. The case against marijuana. Journal of School Health, 1968, 38: 522-523.

83. Brill, N. Q., Crumpton, E., Frank, 1. M., Hochman, J. S., Lomax, P., McGlothlin, W. H., & West, L. J. The marijuana problem. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1970, 73(3): 449-465.

84. Brill, N. Q., Crumpton, E., & Grayson, H. M. Personality factors in marihuana use. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1971, 24: 163-165.

85. Bromberg, W. Marihuana intoxication: A clinical study of Cannabis Sativa intoxication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1934, 91: 303-330,

86. Bromberg, W. Marihuana, a psychiatric study. Journal of the American MedicalAssociation, 1939, 113: 4-12.

87. Bromberg, W., & Rodgers, T. C. Marihuana and aggressive crime. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1946, 102: 82 5 -82 7.

88. Brotman, R., Silverman, I., & Suffet, F. Some social correlates of student drug use. Crime and Delinquency, January, 1970. Pp. 67-74.

89. Brotman, R., & Suffet, F. Marijuana users'views of marijuana use. In J. Zuhn & A. Freeman (Eds.), Psychopathology of adolescence. (American Psychological Association, V. 26) New York: Grune & Stratton, 1970.

90. Bull, J. Cerebral atrophy in young cannabis smokers. (Letter to the editor) Lancet, 1971, 2(7739): 1420.

91. Bullock, F. J., Bruni, R. J., & Werner, E. A fluorescence assay of submicrograrn amounts of cannabis constituents in biological fluids. American Chemical Society, September, 1970, no. 77. (Abstract)

92. Burroughs, W. S. Junkie. New York: Ace Books, 1953. P. 30.

93. Burroughs, W. S. Points of distinction between sedative and consciousnessexpanding drugs. In D. Solomon (Ed.), LSD: The consciousness-expanding drug. New York: Putnam, 1966.

94. Burstein, S. (Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, Shewsbury, Mass.) Personal communications to the Commission, 197 1.

95. Byron, M. H. et al. Fibre. In Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1969, Vol. 9. Pp. 226- 234.

96. Caldwell, D. F. (Division of Psychobiology, Lafayette Clinic, Detroit, Mich.) Personal communication to the Commission, December, 1970.

97. Caldwell, D. F., Myers, S. A., & Domino, E. F. Effects of marihuana smoking on sensory thresholds in man. In D. H. Efron (Ed.), Psychotomimetic drugs. New York: Raven Press, 1970.

98. Caldwell, D. F., Myers, S. A., Domino, E. F., & Merriam, P. E. Auditory and visual threshold effects of marihuana in man. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1969, 29: 755 759.

99. California, Department of Justice, Bureau of Criminal Statistics. Drug arrests and dispositions in California, 1968. California: Department of Justice, Bureau of Criminal Statistics, 1968.

100. Campbell, A. M. G., Evans, M., Thomson, J. L. G., & Williams, M. J. Cerebralatrophyinyoungcannabissmokers.Lancet, 1971,2: 1219-1241. 101. Campbell, A. M. G., & Thomson, J. L. G. Cannabis effects. (Letter to the editor) New Scientist, January 6, 1972.

102. Campbell, D. R. The electroencephalogram in cannabis associated psychosis. Canadian Psychiatric Journal, 1971, 16(2): 161-165.

103. Campbell, 1. L. L'usage des drogues A I'Universit6 Bishop. Toxicomanies, 1970, 3(l): 33-47.

104. Campbell, 1. L. Non-medical psychoactive drug use at Bishop's University 1965 to 1970. Unpublished manuscript, Sir George Williams University, Montreal, September, 1970.

105. Campbell, 1. L. (Sir George Williams University, Montreal, P.Q.) Personal communication to the Commission, August, 197 1.

106. Canada, Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs. Interim Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1970. 107. Canada, Department of National Health and Welfare, Food and Drug Directorate, (now Health Protection Branch) Biostatistics Division. Poison Control program statistics. Ottawa, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970.

108. Cappell, H., Miles, C. G., & Pliner, P. Observer judgments of intoxicated behavior during social interaction: A comparison of alcohol and marihuana. Unpublished manuscript, Addiction Research Foundation, Torronto, 197 I.

109. Carabillo, E. A. (United States Bureau of Narcotics, Washington, D.C.) Personal communication to the Commission, December, 197 1.

110. Carakushansky, G., Neu, R. L., & Gardner, L. 1. Lysergide and cannabis as possible teratogens in man. (Letter to the editor) Lancet, 1969, 1: 150-15 I.

111. Carlin, A. S., Bakker, C. B., Halpern, L., & Post, R. D. Social facilitation of marihuana intoxication. Unpublished manuscript, University of Washington, Seattle, 197 1. (Supplemented by personal communication to the commission)

112. Carlini, E. A., & Masur, J. Development of aggressive behavior in rats by chronic administration of Cannabis sativa. Life Science, 1969, 8: 607-620.

113. Carr, C. J., Fisher, K. D., & Terzian, L. A. A review of the biomedical effects Of marihuana on man in the military environment. Bethesda, Md.: Federation

of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 1970. (Prepared for the Life Sciences Division, Army Research Office)

114. Carstairs, G. M. Daru and bhang: Cultural factors in the choice of intoxicants. QuarterlyJournalof Studies on Alcohol, 1954, 15: 220-237.

115. Casper, E., Janecek, J., & Martinelli, H. Marijuana in Vietnam. United States Army Vietnam Medical Bulletin, 196 8, 40(11): 60 72.

116. Casto, D. Marijuana and the assassins, an etymological investigation. British Journal of the A ddictions, 19 70, 6 5: 2 19 -2 2 5.

117. Cattell, R. B. The three basic factor-analytic research designs-their interrelations and derivatives. Psychological Bulletin, 1952, 49: 499-520.

118. Chapple, P. A. L. Cannabis-a toxic and dangerous substances study of eighty takers. British Journal of the Addictions, 1966, 61: 269-282.

119. Charen, S., & Perelman, L. Personality studies of marihuana addicts. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1946, 102: 674-682.

120. Chem, L, Gerard, D. L., Lee, R., & Rosenfeld, E. The road to H. New York: Basic Books, 1964.

121. Chevers, N. A manual of medicaljurisprudencefor India. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink &Co., 1870.

122. Chopra, G. S. Man and marijuana. International Journal qf the Addictions, 1969, 4(2): 215-247.

123. Chopra, G. S. Marijuana and adverse psychotic reactions. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1971, 23(3): 15 22.

124. Chopra, 1. C., & Chopra, R. N. The use of cannabis drugs in India. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1957, 9: 4 29.

125. Chopra, R. N. Use of hemp drugs in India. Indian Medical Gazette, 1940, 75: 356-367.

126. Chopra, R. N., & Chopra, G. S. The present position of hemp-drug addiction in India. Indian Medical Research Memoirs, July, 193 9, Memoir 3 1.

127. Chopra, R. N., Chopra, G. S., & Chopra, 1. C. Cannabis Sativa in relation to mental diseases and crime in India. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 1942, 30:155-171.

128. Christensen, H. D., Freudenthal, R. I., Gidley, J. T., Rosenfeld, R., Boegli., G., Testino, L., Brine, D. R., Pitt, C. G., & Wall, M. E. Activity of A 8-and A 9tetrahydrocannabinol and related compounds in the mouse. Science, 1971, 172: 165-167.

129. Christiansen, J., & Rafaelsen, 0. J. Cannabis metabolites in urine after oral administration. Psychopharmacologia, 1969, 15: 60-63.

130. Christison, A. On the natural history, action and uses of Indian hemp. Monthly Journal of Medical Science, 1851, 13: 26 45, 117-12 1.

131. Christozov, C. L'aspect marocain de Fintoxication cannabique d'apr@s des 6tudes sur des malades mentaux chroniques (I V partie). Maroc MMical, 1965, 44:866-889.

132. Chun, G. Marijuana: A realistic approach. California Medicine, 1971, 114(4): 7 13.

133. Clark, L. D., Hughes, R., & Nakashima, E. N. Behavioral effects of marihuana. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1970, 23: 193-198.

134. Clark, L. D., & Nakashima, E. N. Experimental studies of marihuana. AmericanJournalqfPsychiatry, 1968, 125: 379-384.

135. Clyde, D. J. Manual.for the Clyde mood scale. Coral Gables, Fla.: University of Miami Press, 1963.

136. Cohen, S. Drug dilemma. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.

137. Cohn, R. A., Barnes, P. R., Barratt, E. S., & Pirch, J. H. Sex differences in response to marijuana extract in the rat. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas, Galveston, 197 1.

138. Colbach, E. Marijuana use by GIs in Viet Nam. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 128(2) 96 99.

139. Colbach, E. M., & Crowe, R. R. Marihuana associated psychosis in Vietnam. Militar Medicine, 1970, 135(7): 571-5 73.

140. Constantinidis, J., & Miras, C. J. Effect of hashish smoke sublimate on hypothalamic noradrenaline studied by the flourescence method. Psychopharmacologia, 1971, 22: 80-99.

141. Cooper, C. P., & Yawney, C. Cannabis use and the Rastafarian in Jamaican society: An interim report. Unpublished manuscript, Project G-153, Sub-study 5-Y-7 1. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, 197 1.

142. Cordeirc, de Farias, R. Use of maconha (Cannabis sativa L.) in Brazil: Control by health and police authorities. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1955, 7(2): 5-19.

143. Coutselims, A., & Miras, C. J. The effects of the smoking process on cannabinols. U. N. Secretariat, 1970, ST/SOA/SER.S/23.

144. Crancer, A. J., Jr. (Alcohol Counter Measures, U.S. Department of Transport, Washington, D. C.) Personal communications to the Commission, 1970 and 1971.

145. Crancer, A. J., Jr., Dille, J. M., Delay, J. C., Wallace, J. E., & Haykin, M. D. The effects of marihuana and alcohol on simulated driving performance. Science, 1969, 164: 851 854.

146. Crancer, A. J., Jr., & Quiring, D. L. Driving records of persons arrested for illegal drug use (Report 011). State of Washington, Department of Motor Vehicles, May, 1968.

147. Currie, L. The perception of danger in a simulated driving task. Ergonomics, 1969, 12(6): 841-849.

148. Dally, P. Undesirable effects of marijuana. (Letter to Om editor) British MedicalJournal, 1967,3(5561): 367.

149. Daramola, T., & Grange, J. J. The cannabis problem among prisoners in Lagos. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1971, 23(2): 5- 1 0.

150. Davidson, R. H., & Barclay, J. F. A rational analysis of the legal status of marihuana with jurisprudential considerations. Brief submitted to the Commission, Student Law Association, University of Alberta, Edmonton, February, 1970.

151. Defer, B., & Diehl, M. L. Les psychoses cannabiques aigu@s: A propos de 560 observations. Annales Medico-Psychologiques. 1968, 2(2): 260-266, (Acute cannabic psychoses: Concerning 560 observations.) (Translated from French by Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto)

152. De Ropp, R. S. Drugs and the mind. New York: Grove Press, 1957.

153. Dewey, L. H. Hemp. In Yearbook qf the United States Department of Agriculture.- 1913. Washington, D. C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1914. Pp.283 346.

154. Domino, E. F. Human pharmacology of marijuana smoking. American Societyfor Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 71st Annual Meeting, 1970.P.50.

155. Domino, E. F. Neuropsychopharmacological studies of marihuana: Some natural and synthetic THC derivatives in animals and man. Paper presented at the New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Marijuana: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Patterns of Social Usage, New York, May, 1971.

156. Domino, E. F. (Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.) Personal communication to the Commission, June, 197 1.

157. Domino, E. F., Hardman, H. F., & Seevers, M. H. Central nervous system actions of some synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol derivatives. Pharmacological Reviews, 1971, 23(4): 3 17-336.

158. Doorenbos, N. J. (University of Mississippi, University, Miss.) Personal communication to the Commission, 197 1.

159. Doorenbos, N. J., Fetterman, P. S., Quimby, M. W., & Turner. C. E. Cultivation, extraction and analysis of Cannabis sativa L. Paper presented at New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Marijuana: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Patterns of Social Usage, New York, May, 197 1.

160. Dornbush, R. L. (Department of Psychiatry, New York Medical College, New York) Personal communication to the Commission, November, 197 1.

161. Dornbush, R. L., Fink, M., & Freedman, A. M. Marijuana, memory, and perception. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 128(2): 86-89.

162. Dorrance, D., Janiger, O., & Teplitz, R. L. In vivo effects of illicit hallucinogens on human lymphocyte chromosomes. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1970, 2 12(9): 1488-149 1.

163. Dube, K. C. Mental disorder in Agra. Social Psychiatry, 1968, 3(4): 139-143.

164. Dube, K. C. (Mental Hospital, Agra, India) Personal communication to the Commission, August, 197 1.

165. Dube, K. C., & Handa, S. K. Drug use in health and mental illness in an Indian population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 118: 345-346. (Abstract)

166. Durham, B. M. "The marihuana psychosis" and other grim fairy tales. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford Law School, Stanford, Calif., May, 1968. 167. Ebel, E. Drug consumption of adolescents in Bielefeld. Report of Bielefeld Medical Extension Course lecture, Johanneskrankenhaus, Bielefeld, West Germany, February 17, 197 1. (Translated from German) 168. Ebin, D. Introduction to Bayard Taylor's "The visions of hasheesh". In D.

Ebin (Ed.), The drug experience. New York: Grove Press, 196 1. Pp. 41-42. 169. Economist. Woodstock rocked. Economist, 1969, 232: 3 1.

170. Eddy, N. B., Halbach, H., Isbell, H., & Seevers, M. H. Drug dependence: Its significance and characteristics. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1965, 32: 72 1 733.

171. Edwards, S., Jr. The problem driver. Olympia, Wash.: State Department of Motor Vehicles, Division of Research and Technology, 1970.

172. Eliade, M. Ancient Scythia and Iran. In G. Andrews, & S. Vinkenoog (Eds.), The book of grass: An anthology of Indian hemp. New York: Grove Press, 1967. Pp. II 13.

173. Ewens, G. F. W. Insanity following the use of Indian hemp. Indian Medical Gazette, 1904, 39: 401 413.

174. Fairbairn, J. W., Liebmann, J. A., & Simic, S. The tetrahydrocannabinol content of cannabis leaf. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 1971, 23: 558 559.

175. Farmilo, C. G., Davis, T. W. M., Vandenheuvel, F. A., & Lane, R. Studies on the chemical analysis of marihuana. Proceedings of the Canadian Societyfor Forensic Science, 1962, 1: 1-50.

176. Farnsworth, D. L. Testimony. In Massachusetts vs. Leis & Weiss. Superior Court, Suffolk, Mass., September, 1967, 10: 10-90.

177. Farnsworth, D. L., & Oliver, H. K. The drug problem among young people. RhodeIslandMedicalJournal, 1968,51: 179-182.

178. Fattah, E. A. Rapport entre cannabis et crime: Revue critique des 6crits criminologiques sur le cannabis. Toxicomanies, 1971, 4(l): 51 79.

179. Fehr, K., & Kalant, H. Analysis of cannabis smoke obtained under different combustion conditions. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, 1971, in press.

180. Fehr, K., Kalant, H., & Miller, R. D. The effects of combustion on cannabis. Unpublished Commission research project, 1972.

181. Fejer, D., & Smart, R. G. Drug use and psychological problems among adolescents in a semi-rural area of Ontario: Haldimand County, Unpublished manuscript, Project J-183, Sub-study 4-J.0. & 7-71. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, 1971.

182. Fenimore, D. C. (Texas Research Institute of Mental Science, Houston, Tex.) Personal communication to the Commission, 197 1.

183. F&6, C. Note sur l'influence du haschisch sur le travail. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des substances de la Soci&e de Biologie. lli@me s6rie, 1901, 3: 696-700.

184. Fergenson, P. E. The relationship between information processing and driving accident and violation record. Human Factors, 1971, 13(2): 173-176.

185. Fernandes, M., & Coper, H. The role of vehicles in cannabis application and interaction between cannabis and central active drugs. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 197 1, 8: 692-693. (Abstract)

186. Ferrero, D. P. (Department of Air Force, Aerospace Medical Division, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N.M.) Personal communication to the Commission, 197 1.

187. Fetterman, P. S., Keith, E. S., Waller, C. W., Guerrero, O., Doorenbos, N. J., Quimby, M. W. Mississippi grown Cannabis Sativa L.: A preliminary observation on the chemical definition of phenotype and variations in THC content versus age, sex, and plant part. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 197 1, 60(8): 1246-1249.

188. Fidalco, R. A. Marijuana-Social and clinical observations. U.S. Army Vietnam Medical Bulletin 1968, 40(8): 58 59.

189. Fink, M., & Freedman, A. M. Cannabis psychosis. Paper presented at the Symposium on Biochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Dependence and Reports on Marihuana Research, Amsterdam, September 30, 197 1. I go. FlUckiger, F. A., & Hanbury, D. Pharmacographia. A history of the principle drugs of vegetable origin met with in Great Britain and British India. London: Macmillan, 1879. 191. Foltz, R. L., Kinzer, G. W., Mitchell, R. I., & Truitt, E. B., Jr. The fate of cannabinoid components of marihuana during smoking. Unpublished manuscript, Battelle Laboratories, Columbia, Ohio, 197 1.

192. Forney, R. B. Toxicology of marihuana. Unpublished manuscript, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind., 197 1.

193. Fort, J. Giver of delight or liberator of sin: Drug use and "addiction" in Asia. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1965, 17(4): 13-19.

194. Fort, J. Testimony. In Massachusetts vs. Leis & Weiss. Superior Court Suffolk, Mass., September 18, 1967, 1: 30-204.

195. Fort, J. The AMA lies about pot. Ramparts, 1968, 7: 12 & 16.

196. Fort, J. The pleasure seekers: The drug crisis, youth and society. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969.

197. Fort, J. Pot: A rational approach. Playboy, 1969, 16(10): 13 1.

198. Fort, J. (Center for Solving Special Social and Health Problems (Fort Help), San Fransisco, Calif.) Personal communication to the Commission, 1971. Cited in Pot and adolescents. Playboy, 1971, 18(8): 46.

199. Frank, 1. M., Hepler, R. S., Stier, S., Rickles, W. H. & Ungerleider, J. T. Marijuana, tobacco and functions affecting driving. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Washington, D. C.,

May 3-7, 197 1.

200. Fraser, J. D.. Withdrawal symptoms in cannabis-indica addicts. Lancet, 1949,

2: 747-748.

201. Freedman, H. L., & Rockmore, M. J. Marihuana: A factor in personality evaluation and army maladjustment: Part 1. Journal of Clinical Psychopathology, 1946, 7(4): 765-782.

202. Freedman, H. L., & Rockmore, M. J. Marihuana: A factor in personality evaluation and army maladjustment: Part 11. Journal of Clinical Psychopathology, 1946, 8(2): 221-236.

203. Friedman, 0. M. (Collaborative Research, Inc., Waltham, Mass.) Personal communication to the Commission, January, 1972.

204. Gale, E. N., & Guenther, G. Motivational factors associated with the use of cannabis (marihuana). British Journal of the Addictions, 197 1, 66: 188-194.

205. Galston, A. W. Some implications of the widespread use of herbicides. BioScience, 1971, 2 1(17): 891-892.

206. Gamage, J. R., & Zerkin, E. L. A comprehensive guide to the Englishlanguage literature on cannabis (Marihuana). Wisconsin: STASH Press, 1969.

207. Garattim, S. Effects of a cannabis extract on gross behaviour. In G. E. W.

Wolstenholtne & J. Knight (Eds.), Hashish: Its chemistry and pharmacology. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1965. Pp. 70-82.

208. Gardikas, C. G. Hashish and crime. Enkephalos, 1950, 1(2-3): 201-21 1.

209. Garneau, N. (H6pital Saint Jean de Dieu, Montreal, P.Q.). Personal communication to the Commission, December, 197 1.

210. Garriott, J. C. Cannabis, nicotine and alcohol compared. (Letter to the editor) New England Journal of Medicine, 1971, 285(14): 806-807.

211. Garriott, J. C., Forney, R. B., Hughes, F. W., & Richards, A. B. Pharmacologic properties of some cannabis related compounds. Archives internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. 1968, 171(2): 425 -434.

212. Gary, N. E., & Keylon, V. Intravenous administration of marihuana. (Letter to the editor) Journal of the American MedicalAssociation, 1970, 21](3): 501.

213. Gaskill, H. S. Marihuana, an intoxicant. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1945,102:202-24.

214. Gastinel, J. B. On hashish, its historical part, its action on the mental and physiological properties, its botanical characteristics, its culture, development, harvesting, preparations used by the Arabs, its active constituent and therapeutic applications. Repertoire de Pharmacie, 1849, 6: 129-142. (Translated from French).

215. Gautier, T. The hashish club. In D. Solomon (Ed.), The marihuana papers. New York: New American Library, 1968. Pp. 163-178. (Translated from French by R. J. Gladstone)

216. Gay, G. R. (Haight-Ashbury Clinic, San Francisco, Calif.) Personal communication to the Commission at Commission Symposium on Treatment, 1971.

217. Geber, W. F., & Schramm, L. C. Effect of marihuana extract on fetal hamsters and rabbits. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1969, 14: 276- 282. 218. Geber, W. F., & Schramm, L. C. Teratogenicity of marihuana extract as influenced by plant origin and seasonal variation. Archives internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie, 1969, 177(l): 224-230.

219. Geller, A., & Boas, M. The drug beat. New York: Cowles, 1969.

220. Gershon,S. Onthepharmacologyofmarihuana.BehavioralNeuropsychiatry, 1970, 1: 9-18.

221. Gilbert, J. G., & Lombardi, D. N. Personality characteristics of young male narcotic addicts. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1967, 31(5): 536-538.

222. Gill, E. W. The chemical pharmacology of the active constituents Of cannabis. Paper presented at the Symposium on Biochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Dependence and Reports on Marihuana Research, Amsterdam, October 1, 1971.

223. Gill, E. W., & Jones, G. Distribution and metabolism of tritium labelled tetrahydrocannabinol. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 1971, 8: 700-701. (Abstract)

224. Gill, E. W., & Paton, W. D. M. Pharmacological experiments in vitro on the active principles of cannabis. In C. R. B. Joyce & S. H. Curry (Eds.), The botany and chemistry of cannabis. London: J. & A. Churchill, 1970. Pp. 165-173.

225. Gill, E. W., Paton, W. D. M., & Pertwee, R. G. Preliminary experiments on the chemistry and pharmacology of cannabis. Nature, 1970, 228: 134 136.

226. Gilmour, D. G., Bloom, A. D., Lele, K. P., Robbins, E. S., & Maximilian, C. Chromosomal aberrations in users of psychoactive drugs. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1971, 24(3): 268-272. 227. Ginsberg, A. The great marihuana hoax: First manifesto to end the bringdown. Atlantic Monthly, 1966, 28: 107-113.

228. Glaser, D., Inciardi, J. T., & Babst, D. V. Later heroin use by marijuanausing, heroin-using and non-drug-using adolescent offenders in New York City. InternationalJournal of the Addictions, 1969, 4(2): 145-155.

229. Goldberg, L. The definition of an intoxicating beverage. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1955, 16: 3 16.

230. Goode, E. Marijuana. New York: Atherton Press, 1969.

231. Goode, E. (Ed.) Marijuana and the politics of reality. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1969, 10(2): 83-94.

232. Goode, E. The marijuana smokers. New York: Basic Books, 1970.

233. Goode, E. Drug use and grades in college. Nature, 1971, 234: 225-227.

234. Gourv&s, J., Viallard, C., Leluan, D., Girard, J.-P., & Aury, R. Coma du au cannabis sativa: un cas. La Presse Medicale, 1971, 79(30): 1389-1390.

235. Great Britain, Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence. Cannabis. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1968. ('The Wootton Report')

236. Green, D. M., & Swets, J. A. Signal detection theory and psychophysics, New

York: Wiley, 1966.

237. Green, M. Committed users study. Unpublished Commission research project, 1971. 238. Green, M., Hemmings, B., Miller, R. D., & Hansteen, R. W. Self reporting of drug consumption patterns by regular cannabis users: The logbook study. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1.

239. Green, M., & Leathers, B. Adult drug users study. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1.

240. Greizerstein, H. B., & Smith, C. M. Progress summary on alcohol-THC interactions in mice. Unpublished manuscript, Research Institute on Alcoholism, Albany, N.Y., June, 197 1.

241. Grinspoon, L. Marihuana. Scientific American, 1969, 221(6): 17-25.

242. Grinspoon, L. Marihuana. International Journal of Psychiatry, 1970-1971, 9: 488-515. 243. Grinspoon, L. Marihuana reconsidered. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 197 1. 244. Grossman, J. C., Goldstein, R., & Eisenman, R. Openness to experience and marijuana use: An initial investigation. Proceedings of the 79th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1971, 6: 335-336.

245. Grossman, W. Adverse reactions associated with cannabis products in India. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1969, 70(3): 529-533.

246. Grunfeld, Y., & Edery, H. Psychopharmacological activity of the active constituents of hashish and some related cannabinoids. Psychopharmacologia, 1969,14:200 210.

247. Haagen, C. H. Social andpsychological characteristics associated with the use of marijuana by college men. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University, January, 1970.

248. Haines, L., & Green, W. Marijuana use patterns. British Journal Of the Addictions, 1970, 65: 347 362.

249. Halikas, J. A., Goodwin, D. W., & Guze, S. B. Marihuana effects: A survey of regular users. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1971, 2 17(5): 692- 694. 250. Hamilton Academy of Medicine. Physician survey on drug problems. Cited in brief submitted to the Commission, May 15, 1970.

251. Hansteen, R. W., Lonero, L., Miller, R. D., & Jones, B. The effects of cannabis and alcohol on some automobile driving tasks. Unpublished Commission research project, 1971. (A preliminary summary is presented in Annex B of Chapter 2 of this Report)

252. Hardman, H. F., Domino, E. F., & Seevers, M. H. General pharmacological actions of some synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol derivatives. Pharmacological Reviews, 1 9 7 1, 2 3 (4): 2 9 5 3 1 5.

253. Hardman, H. F., Domino, E. F., & Seevers, M. H. Structure activity relationships of A 3-tetrahydrocannabinols. Proceedings of the Western PharmacologicalSociety, 1971, 14: 14 20.

254. Hardman, H. F., Domino, E. F., Woods, L. A., & Seevers, M. H. Pharmacological actions of n, 3 _ tetrahydrocannabinol derivatives. Pharmacologist, 1970, 12(2): 258.

255. Hauschild, T. B. Marijuana. Military Medicine, 1971, 136(2): 105 -109.

256. Hecht, F., Beals, R. K., Lees, M. H., Jolly, H., & Roberts, P. Lysergic-aciddiethylamide and cannabis as possible teratogens in man. (Letter to the editor) Lancet, November 16, 1968, P. 1087.

25 7. Heiman, E. M. Marihuana precipitated psychoses in patients evacuated to Conus. United States Army Vietnam Medical Bulletin, 1968, 40(9): 75-77.

258. Hekimian, L. J., & Gershon, S. Characteristics of drug abusers admitted to a psychiatric hospital. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1968, 205: 125-130.

259. Hemmings@, B., & Miller, R. D. Drug induced poisonings and deaths in Canada. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1.

260. Hemmings, B., & Miller, R. D. Non-medical drug use as a factor in hospitalization: A survey of Canadian psychiatric hospital records. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1.

261. Henderson, A. H., & Pugsley, D. J. Collapse after intravenous injection of hashish. British Medical Journal, 1968, 3: 229-230.

262. Henderson, 1. An exploration of the natural history of heroin addiction- Vancouver: Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia, 1970. 263. Hepler, R. S. (Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif.) Personal communications to the Commission, 1970 and 197 I.

264. Hepler, R. S., & Frank, 1. M. Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressureJournal of the American Medical Association, 1971, 217(10): 1392.

265. Hepler, R. S., Frank, 1. M., & Ungerleider, J. T. The effects of marliuall"

smoking on pupillary size. Unpublished manuscript. Jules Stein Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, 197 1.

2,66. Heyn drickx, A., Scheiris, C., & Schepens, P. Toxicological study of a fatal intoxication by man due to cannabis smoking. Journal de Pharmacie de Belgique, 1 969, 24: 371 376.

267. Hill, H. E., Haertzen, C. A., Wolbach, A. B., Jr., & Miner, E. J. The addiction research center inventory: Standardization of scales which evaluate subjective effects of morphine, amphetamine, pentobarbital, alcohol, LSD-25, pyrahexyl and chlorpromazine. Psychopharmacologia, 1963, 4: 167-183.

268. Himmelsbach, C. K. Treatment of the morphine abstinence syndrome with a synthetic cannabis-like compound. Southern MedicalJournal, 1944, 37: 26-29.

269. Hindmarch, I. Patterns of drug use in a provincial university. British Journal of the Addictions, 1970, 64: 395 -402.

270. Ho, B. T., Fritchie, G. E., Englert, L. F., McIsaac, W. M., & Id5np5dn-Heikkil@, J. E. Marihuana: Importance of the route of administration. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 1971, 23: 309-3 1 0.

271. Ho, B. T., Fritchie, G. E., Kralik, P. M., Englert, L. F., McIsaac, W. M., & Idaripd5n-Heikkil5, J. Distribution of tritiated - I - a 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rat tissues after inhalation. (Letter to the editor) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 1970, 22: 538 539.

272. Ho, B. T., Taylor, D., Englert, L. F., & Mclsaac, W. M. Neurochemical effects of L-2,9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rats following repeated inhalation. Brain Research, 1971, 3 L 233-236.

273. Hochman, J. S. Testimony to the Committee on Criminal Procedures, California State Assembly, Los Angeles, March 30, 197 1.

274. Hochman, J. S., & Brill, N. Q. Chronic marihuana usage and liver function. (Letter to the editor) Lancet, 1971, 2(7728): 818-8 19.

2 75. Hochman, J. S., & Brill, N. Q. Marijuana use and psychosocial adaptation. Unpublished manuscript, Center for the Health Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, 19 7 1.

276. Hochman, J. S., & Brill, N. Q. Marijuana intoxication: Pharmacological and psychological factors. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1971, 32(10): 676-679.

277. Hogan, R., Mankin, D., Conway, J., & Fox, S. Personality correlates of undergraduate marijuana use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1970, 35(i): 58 63.

278. Hollister, L. E. Clinical pharmacology and human behavioral responses to marihuana. Paper presented at the New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Marijuana: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Patterns of Social Usage, New York, May, 1971.

279. Hollister, L. E. Hunger and appetite after single doses of marihuana, alcohol, and dextroamphetamine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1971, 12(l): 44-49. 280. Hollister, L. E. Marihuana in man: Three years later. Science, 1971, 1 72(3978): 2 1-29.

281. Hollister, L. E. (Veterans' Administration Hospital, Palo Alto, Calif.) Personal communication to the Commission, November, 197 1.

282. Hollister, L. E., & Gillespie, H. K. Marihuana, ethanol and dextroamphetamine. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1970, 23: 199 203.

2 83. Hollister, L. E., Moore, F., Kanter, S., & Noble, E. A '-tetrahydrocannabinol, synhexyl and marijuana extract administered orally in man: Catecholamine excretion, plasma cortisol levels and platelet serotonin content. Psychopharmacologia, 1970, 17(4): 354-360.

284. Hollister, L. E., Richards, R. K., & Gillespie, H. K. Comparison of tetrahydrocannabinol and synhexyl in man. Clinical Pharmacolog a d

'y n Therapeutics, 1968, 9(6): 783 791. 285. Hollister, L. E., Sherwood, S. L., & Cavasino, A. Marihuana and the human electroencephalogram. Pharmacological Research Communications, 1970, 2(4): 305-308.

286. Holtzman, D., Lovell, R. A., JafFe, J. H., & Freedman, D. X. I-A9_ tetrahydrocannabinol: Neurochernical and behavioral effects in the mouse. Science, 1969, 163: 1464-1467.

287. Howes, J. F. A study of two water soluble derivatives of A9tetrahydrocannabinol. Pharmacologist, 1970, 12(2): 258.

288. Hrbek, J., Krejvci, Z., Komencla, S., SvirokA, A., & Nauratil, J. Influence of smoking hashish on higher nervous activity in man. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 1971, 8: 689-690. (Abstract)

289. Hsia, J. C., & Willinsky, M. D. (Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.) Personal communication to the Commission, 1971.

290. Huard, P., & Wong, M. Chinese medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

291. Hughes, F. K. Drugs and drug-related non-drug crime. Unpublished Commission research paper, 197 1.

292. Hughes, J. E., Steahly, L. P., & Bier, M. M. Marihuana and the diabetic coma. Journal of the American MedicalAssociation, 1970, 214(6): 1113-1114.

293. Huxley, A. The doors of perception and heaven and hell. Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin, 1969.

294. Iddnpadn-Heikkild, J., Fritchie, G. E., Englert, L. F., Ho, B. T., & McIsaac, W. M. Placental transfer of tritiated- I - A 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. (Letter to the editor) New England Journal of Medicine, August 7, 1969. P. 3 30.

295. Indian Hemp Drugs Commission, 1893-1894. Report on Indian Hemp. Vol. 1-7. Simla: Government Central Printing Office, 1894. (Primary volume reprinted Silver Spring, Md.: Thos. Jefferson, 1969)

296. Isbell, H., Gorodetzsky, C. W., Jasinski, D., Claussen, U., Spulak, F. V., & Korte, K. Effects (+A9 of trans-tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Psychopharmacologia, 1967, 11: 184 188.

297. Isbell, H., & Jasinski, D. J. A comparison of LSD-25 with (-) -A9-transtetrahydrocannabinol (THQ and attempted cross tolerance between LSD and THC. Psychopharmacologia, 1969, 14(2): 115-123.

298. Isbell, H., Jasinski, D. J., Gorodetzsky, C. W., Korte, F., Claussen, U., Haage, M., Sieper, H., & Von Spulak, F. Studies on tetrahydrocannabinol. Part I. Method of assay in human subjects and results with crude extracts, purified tetrahydrocannabinols and synthetic compounds. In Report of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, Washington, D. C., 1967. Pp. 4832-4846.

299. Johnson, B. D. Social determinants of the use of dangerous drugs by college students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Sociology, Columbia University, June, 197 1.

300. Johnson, R. D. Medico-social aspects of marijuana. Rhode Island Medical Journal, 1968, 5 1(3): 1 71 1 78.

301. Johnson, S., & Domino, E. F. Some cardiovascular effects of marihuana smoking in normal volunteers. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 197 1, 12(5): 762-768.

302. Johnston, W. E., & Williams, H. R. Drug use patterns and relatedfactors of heroin addicts seeking treatment for their addiction. Vancouver: Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia, 197 1.

303. Jones, R. T. The marijuana induced "social high": A note of caution. Proceedings of the Western Pharmacological Society, 1971, 14: 21-25.

304. Jones, R. T. Psychosocial aspects. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Chicago, April, 197 1.

305. Jones, R. T. Tetrahydrocannabinol and the marijuana induced social "high or the effects of the mind on marijuana. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1971, 191: 155-165.

306. Jones, R. T. Cited in Marijuana. Medical WorldNews, July 16, 1971. P. 40.

307. Jones, R. T. (Department of Mental Hygiene, Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, San Francisco, Calif.) Personal communication to the Commission, February, 1972.

308. Jones, R. T., & Stone, G. C. Psychological studies of marijuana and alcohol in man. Psychopharmacologia, 1970, 18: 108-117.

309. Joyce, C. R. B., & Curry, S. H. (Eds.) The botany and chemistry of cannabis. London: J&A Churchill, 1970. 310. Kalant, H. Marihuana and simulated driving. Science, 1969, 166(3905): 640.

311. Kalant, H., & Kalant, 0. J. Drugs, society and personal choice. Don Mills, Ont.: General Publishing, 197 1.

312. Kalant, 0. J. An interim guide to the cannabis (marihuana) literature. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation, 1968.

313. Kalant, 0. J. Report of the Indian Hemp Commission-1893 4: A critical review. Unpublished manuscript, Project M-128, Sub-study 3-25-70. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, 1970.

314. Kalant, 0. J. Ludlow on cannabis: a modern look at a nineteenth century drug experience. InternationalJournalof the Addictions, 1971, 6(2): 309-322.

315. Kalant, 0. J. Moreau, hashish, and hallucinations. International Journal of the Addictions, 1971, 6(3): 553-560.

316. Kalant, 0. J. & Kalant, H. Observations on the use of cannabis in different countries. Unpublished manuscript, Project M-128, Sub-study 2-25 & 9-71. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, 197 1.

317. Kanter, S. L., Hollister, L. E., Moore, F., & Green, D. Detection of cannabinols in the urine of man after oral ingestion of marihuana. Clinical Chemistry, 1971, 17(7): 636.

3 1 8. Kaplan, H. S. Psychosis associated with marijuana. New York State Journal of Medicine, 1971, 71(4): 433-435. 3 19. Kaplan, Joel. Marijuana and drug abuse in Vietnam. Paper presented at the

New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Marijuana: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Patterns of Social Usage, New York, May 20, 197 1.

320. Kaplan, John. Introduction to Marijuana: Report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission. 1893-1894. Silver Spring, Md.: Thos. Jefferson, 1969.

32 1. Kaplan, John. Marijuana: The new prohibition. New York: World Publishing, i970.

322. Kaplan, M. Cannabis and alcohol. Paper presented at the World Federation for Mental Health, International Symposium on Drug Abuse, Jerusalem, August 10, 1970.

323. Keeler, M. H. Adverse reaction to marihuana. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1967, 124(5): 128 131.

324. Keeler, M. H. Marihuana induced hallucinations. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1968, 29: 3 14 3 15.

325. Keeler, M. H. Motivation for marihuana use: A correlate of adverse reaction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1968, 125(3): 142-146.

326. Keeler, M. H. What are the questions concerning marijuana? North Carolina MedicalJournal, 1969,30(2): 41-43.

32 7. Keeler, M. H., Ewing, J. A., & Rouse, B. A. Hallucinogenic effects of marijuana as currently used. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 128(2): iO5-108.

328. Keeler, M. H., & Reifler, C. B. Grand mal convulsions subsequent to marijuana use. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1967, 28: 474 475.

329. Keeler, M. H., Reifler, C. B., & Liptzin, M. B. Spontaneous recurrence of marihuana effect. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1968, 125(3): 384-386.

330. Keup, W. Marihuana. (Letter to the editor) Science, 1969, 163: 1144.

331. Keup, W. Psychotic symptoms due to cannabis abuse. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1970,31(2): 119-126.

332. Kew, M. C., Bersohn, I., & Siew, S. Possible hepatotoxicity of cannabis. Lancet, 1969, 1(7594): 578-579.

333. Kibrick, E., & Smart, R. G. Psychotropic drug use and driving risk: A review and analysis. Journal of Safety Research, 1970, 2(2): 73-85.

334. King, A. B., & Cowen, D. L. Effect of intravenous injection of marihuana. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1969, 210(4): 724 725.

335. King, A. B., Pechet, G. S., & Pechet, L. Intravenous injection of crude marihuana. (Letter to the editor) Journal of the American Medical Association, 1970, 214(9): 1711.

336. King, L. J., & Forney, R. B. The absorption and excretion of the marihuana constituents, cannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinol. Federation Proceedings, 1967,26:540.

337. Kiplinger, G. F., Manno, J. E., Rodda, B. E., & Forney, R. B. Dose-response analysis of effects of tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1971, 12(4): 650 657.

338. Klausner, H. A., & Dingell, J. V. Studies on the metabolism and distribution of A '-tetrahydrocannabinol. Pharmacologist, 1970, 12(2): 259.

339. Klausner, H. A., & Dingell, J. V. The metabolism and excretion of tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat. Life Sciences, 1971, 10(l): 49 59.

340. Klein, A. W., Davis, J. H., & Blackbourne, B. D. Marijuana and automobile crashes. Journal of Drug Issues, 197 1, 1: 18-26.

341. Klein, F. K., Rapoport, H., & Elliott, H. W. Cannabis alkaloids. Nature, 197 1, 232(5308): 258 259. 342. KlOver, H. Mescal and mechanisms of hallucinations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966.

343. Kolansky, H., & Moore, W. T. Clinical effects of marihuana on the young. Report to the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, Washington, D.C., May 17, 197 1.

344. Kolansky, H., & Moore, W. T. Effects of marihuana on adolescents and young adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1971, 216(3): 486- 492.

345. Kornhaber, A. Marihuana in an adolescent psychiatric outpatient population. (Letter to the editor) Journal of the American Medical Association, 1971,

215(12): 1988.

346. Krantz, J. C., Jr., Berger, H. J., & Welch, B. L. Blockade of (-)-trans-A9tetrahydrocannabinol depressant effect by cannabinol in mice. American JournalofPharmacy, 1971, 143(5): 149-152.

347. Lambo, T. A. Medical and social problems of drug addiction in West Africa with special emphasis on psychiatric aspects. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1965, 17(l): 3-13.

348. Lancet. Cannabis encephalopathy. Lancet, 1971, 2: 1240-124 1.

349. Lanphier, C. M., & Phillips, S. B. The non-medical use of drugs and associated attitudes: A national household survey. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1.

350. Lanphier, C. M., & Phillips, S. B. Secondary school students and non-medical drug use: A national survey of students enrolled in grades seven through thirteen. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1.

351. Lanphier, C. M., & Phillips, S. B. University students and non-medical drug use: A national survey. Unpublished Commission research project, 1971.

352. Laskowitz, D. Psychological characteristics of the adolescent addict. In E. Harms (Ed.), Drug addiction in youth. London: Pergamon Press, 1965. Pp. 67- 85.

353. Leander, J. American Indians in 1626. In G. Andrews, & S. Vinkenoog (Eds.), The book of grass: An anthology of Indian hemp. New York: Grove Press, 1967. P. 34.

354. Lecker, S. (Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, P.Q.) Personal communication to the Commission, May, 197 1.

355. Leckman, J., Ananth, J. V., Ban, T. A., & Lehmann, H. E. Adverse reactions: Predisposing factors. Paper presented at the Canadian Psychiatric Association, Halifax, June 9, 197 1.

356. Legator, M. (United States Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C.) Personal communication to the Commission, February, 1972.

 

35 7. Lehmann, H. E. Phenomenology and pathology of addiction. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1963, 4(3): 168-180.

358. Lemberger, L., Axelrod, J., & Kopin, 1. J. The metabolism and disposition of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Pharmacological Reviews, 1971, 23(4): 371-380.

359. Lemberger, L., Axelrod, J., & Kopin, 1. J. Metabolism and disposition of tetrahydrocannabinols in naive subjects and chronic marijuana users. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 197 1.

360. Lemberger, L., Silberstein, S. D., Axelrod, J., & Kopin, 1. J. Marihuana: Studies on the disposition and metabolism of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Science, 1970, 170: 1320-1322.

361. Lemberger, L., Tamarkin, N. R., Axelrod, J., & Kopin, 1. J. Delta- 9-tetrahydrocannabinol: Metabolism and disposition in long-term marihuana smokers. Science, 1971, 173: 72-74.

362. Lerner, M., & Zeffert, J. T. Determination of tetrahydrocannabinol isomers in marijuana and hashish. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1968, 20: 53-54.

363. Lerner, P. The precise determination of tetrahydrocannabinol in marihuana and hashish. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1969, 2 1(3): 39-42.

364. Leuchtenberger, C., & Leuchtenberger, R. Morphological and cytochemical effects of marijuana cigarette smoke on epithelioid cells of lung explants from mice. Nature, 1971, 234(5326): 227-229.

365. Leute, R. K., Ullman, E. F., Goldstein, A., & Herzenberg, L. A. FRATA, a rapid new immunoassay technique: Determination of morphine by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Paper presented at the Symposium of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, Toronto, February, 197 I.

366. Lewin, L. Phantastica, narcotic and stimulating drugs: Their use and abuse. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964. 367. Lewis, A. Cannabis: A review of the international clinical literature. Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence. Cannabis. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1968. Pp. 40-63.

368. Lewis, B. The Isma'ilites and the assassins. In M. Baldwin (Ed.), The first hundredyears, Vol. 1. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press, 1958.

369. Ling, G. M. (Department of Pharmacology, University of Ottawa, Ont.) Personal communication to the Commission, February, 1972.

370. Ling, G. M., Thomas, J. A., Usher, D. R., & Singhal, R. L. Effects of chronically administered A ]_ tetrahydrocannabinol on adrenal and gonadal activity of male rats. European Journal of Pharmacology, 1972, in press.

371. Lingeman, R. R. Drugsfrom A to Z.- A dictionary. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.

372. Lipparini, F., Scotti De Carolis, A., & Longo, V. G. A neuropharmacological investigation of some trans-tetrahydrocannabinol derivatives. PhysioloKy and Behavior, 1969, 4(4): 527-532.

373. Liskow, B., Liss, J., & Parker, C. W. Allergy to marijuana. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1971, 75: 571-573.

374. Livet, L. M. Les furneurs de mariguana. Annales Medico-Psychogiques, 1920, 12:257-267.

375. Lockhart, L. (University of Texas, Medical Branch, Galveston, Tex.) Personal communication to the Commission, November, 197 1.

376. Lomax, P. Animal pharmacology of marihuana. Proceedings of the Western Pharmacological Society, 1971, 14: 10-13.

377. Louria, D. B. Nightmare drugs. New York: Pocket Books, 1966.

378. Louria, D. B. Testimony. In Massachusetts vs. Leis & Weiss. Superior Court, Suffolk, Mass., September, 1967, 2: 3-99.

379. Louria, D. B. The drug scene. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

380. Ludlow, F. H. The hasheesh eater: Being passages from the life of a Pythagorean. New York: Harper Bros., 1857. Reprinted, New York: Rains, 1903.

381. Ludwig, E. G., & Collette, 1. C. Some misuses of health statistics. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1971, 2 16(3): 493-499.

382. Lundberg, G. D., Adelson, J., & Prosnitz, E. H. Marihuana-induced hospitalization. (Letter to the editor) Journal of the American Medical Association, 1971, 215(l): 12 1.

383. Lundell, F. W. Cannabis sativa-the disdainful dysphoriant. Unpublished manuscript, Queen Mary's Veterans' Hospital, Montreal, 1970.

384. Lundell, F. W. Critique of the Le Dain Commission's Interim Report. Unpublished manuscript, McGill University, Montreal, 1970.

385. Lundell, F. W. (Queen Mary's Veterans' Hospital, Montreal, P.Q.) Personal communications to the Commission, 1970 and 197 1.

386. Luthra, Y. K., Rosenkrantz, H. R., Muhilly, N. L., & Thompson, G. R. Biochemical changes in rat brain after chronic oral treatment with cannabinoids. Paper presented at the 162nd National Meeting of the American Chemical Society Division of Biological Chemistry, Washington, D.C., 197 1.

387. Lynch, V. D. Marihuana research-a perspective. Paper presented at the Tenth Annual Conference, International Narcotic Enforcement Officers Association, Philadelphia, September 18, 1969.

388. Magus, R. D., & Harris, L. S. Carcinogenic potential of marihuana smoke condensate. Paper presented at the 1971 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Chicago, April 13, 197 1.

389. Malcolm, A. 1. The alienating influence of marijuana. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychiatric Research Association, Fifteenth Annual Meeting, New York, November 7, 1970.

390. Malcolm, A. 1. The pursuit of intoxication. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation, 1971.

391. Malleson, N. B. Testimony. In Massachusetts vs. Leis & Weiss. Superior Court, Suffolk, Mass., September, 1967, 3: 3-109.

392. Mandel, J. Hashish, assassins, and the love of God. Issues in CriminoloKY, 1966, 2(2): 149-156.

393. Manheimer, D. 1. Marijuana use among adults in two San Francisco Bay area locales. Paper presented at the Conference on Drug Usage and Drug

 

Subcultures, Asilomar, Calif., February 12, 1970 and personal communication to the Commission, 1970.

394. Martheimer, D. I., Mellinger, G. D., & Balter, M. B. Marijuana use among urban adults. Science, 1969, 166(3912): 1544-1545.

395. Mann, P. E. G., Cohen, A. B., Finley, T. N., & Ladman, A. J. Alveolar macrophages: Structural and functional differences between nonsmokers and smokersof marijuana and tobacco. LaboratoryInvestigation, 1971, 25(2): 11 I120.

396. Mann, P. E. G., Finley, T. N., & Ladman, A. J. Marijuana smoking: A study of its effects on alveolar lining material and pulmonary macrophages recovered by bronchopulmonary lavage. Journal of Clinical Investigations, 1970, 49(6): 60a 61a.

397. Manno, J. E. Clinical investigations with marijuana and alcohol. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indiana University, September, 1970.

398. Manno, J. E. (Department of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, Ala.) Personal communication to the Commission, April, 197 1.

399. Manno, J. E., Kiplinger, G. F., Haine, S. E., Bennett, 1. F., & Forney, R. B. Comparative effects of smoking marihuana or placebo on human motor and mental performance. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1970, 11(6): 808-815.

400. Manno, J. E., Kiplinger, G. F., Scholz, N., & Forney, R. B. The influence of alcohol and marihuana on motor and mental performance. Clinical PharmacoloKy and Therapeutics, 1971, 12(2): 202-21 1.

40 1. Marcovitz, E., & Myers, H. J. The marihuana addict in the army. War Medicine, 1944,6:382-391.

402. Margolis, J. S., & Clorfene, R. A child's garden of grass. North Hollywood: Contact Books, 1969.

403. Marshman, J. A., & Gibbons, R. J. A note on the composition of illicit drugs. Ontario Medical Review, September, 1970. P. 429.

404. Martin, P. -A. Cannabis and chromosomes. (Letter to the editor) Lancet, February 15, 1969. P. 370.

405. Massachusetts vs. Leis & Weiss. (Vol. 1 12) Superior Court, Suffolk, Mass., September, 1967.

406. Mayer-Gross, W., Slater, E., & Roth, M. Clinicalpsychiatry. London: Cassell, 1960.

407. Mayor's Committee on Marihuana. The marihuana problem in the City of New York. Lancaster, Perm.: Jacques Cattell Press, 1944. ('The La Guardia Report')

408. McAree, G. P., Steffenhagen, R. A., & Zheutlin, L. S. Personality factors in college drug users. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1969, 15(2): 102-106.

409. McGeer, P. (Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.) Personal communication to the Commission, February, 1972.

410. McGlothlin, W. H. Toward a rational view of marihuana. In J. L. Simmons

(Ed.), Marihuana.- Myths and realities. North Hollywood: Brandon House, 1967.

411. McGlothlin, W. H. Effects in man of short- and long-term use of cannabis: Research aspects. Unpublished manuscript, World Health Organization, 1970, DRD/WP/70.13.

412. McGlothlin, W. H. (Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif.) Personal communication to the Commission, April, 197 1.

413. McGlothlin, W. H. Marijuana: An analysis of use, distribution and control. Unpublished manuscript, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, Washington, D.C., June, 197 1.

414. McGlothlin, W. H. The use of cannabis: east and west. Paper presented at the Sympsosiurn on Biochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Dependencd and Reports on Marihuana Research, Amsterdam, September 30, 197 1.

415. McGlothlin, W. H., Arnold, D. O., & Rowan, P. K. Marijuana use among adults. Psychiatry, 1970, 33(4): 433-443.

416. McGlothlin, W. H., & West, L. J. The marihuana problem: An overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1968, 125(3): 126-134.

417. McIsaac, W. M., Fritchie, G. E., Idanpadn-Heikkild, J. E., Ho, B. T., & Englert, L. F. Distribution of marihuana in monkey brain and concomitant behavioural effects. Nature, 1971, 230(5296): 593-594.

418. McMillan, D. E., Dewey, W. L., & Harris, L. S. Pharmacological and behavioral effects of A8- and A9-tetrahydrocannabinols. Paper presented at the New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Marijuana: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Patterns of Social Usage, New York, May, 197 1.

419. McMillan, D. E., Harris, L. S., Turk, R. F., & Kennedy, J. S. Development of marked behavioral tolerance to I-,19-tetrahydrocannabinol (A 9-THQ and cross tolerance to I-A 8- tetrahydrocannabinol ( A 8 -THQ in the pigeon. Pharmacologist, 1970, 12(2): 258.

420. Mechoulam, R. Marihuana chemistry: Recent advances in cannabinoid chemistry open the area to more sophisticated biological research. Science, 1970, 168(3936): 1159 1166.

421. Mechoulam, R. Cannabis Chemical, pharmacological and clinical aspects. New York: Academic Press, 197 1, in press.

422. Mechoulam, R. (School of Pharmacy, Hebrew University, Jerusalem) Personal communication to the Commission, 197 1, in press.

423. Mechoulam, R., & Gaom, Y. Recent advances in the chemistry of hashish. In. L. Zechmeisler (Ed.), Progress in the chemistry of Organic natural products. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1967. Pp. 175-213.

424. Mechoulam, R., Shani, A., Edery, H., & Grunfeld, Y. Chemical basis of hashish activity. Science, 1970, 169: 611-612.

425. Medical World News. Marijuana. Medical World News, July 16, 197 1. Pp. 37 43.

426. Melges, F. T., Tinklenberg, J. R., Hollister, L. E., & Gillespie, H. K. Temporal disintegration and depersonalization during marihuana intoxication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1970, 23(3): 204-2 1 0.

427. Melges, F. T., Tinklenberg, J. R., Hollister, L. E., & Gillespie, H.

K. Marihuana and the temporal span of awareness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 197 1, 24(6): 564 567.

428. Mendelson, J. (Department of Psychiatry, Boston University, Mass.) Personal communication to the Commission, 197 1.

429. Merkus, F. W. H. M. Cannabivarin and tetrahydrocannabivarin, two new constituents of hashish. Nature, 197 1, 232: 579-580.

430. Meyer, R. G. The acute mental effects of marihuana. Paper presented at the Symposium on Biochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Dependence and Reports on Marihuana Research, Amsterdam, October, 197 1.

43 1. Meyer, R. E., Pillard, R. C., Shapiro, L. M., & Mirin, S. M. Administration of marijuana to heavy and casual marijuana users. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 128(2): 90-96.

432. Mickel, E. J., Jr. The artificial paradises in French literature. Part 1, The influence of opium and hashish on the literature of French romanticism and les fleurs du mal. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969.

433. Mikuriya, T. H. Physical, mental, and moral effects of marijuana: The Indian Hemp Drugs Commission report. International Journal of the Addiction, 1968, 3(2): 253-270.

434. Mikuriya, T. H. Psycho-pathological aspects of the Cannabis situation in

Morocco: Statistical data for 1965 revisited. International Journal of the Addictions, 1968, 3(2): 397-398.

435. Mikuriya, T. H. Marijuana in medicine: Past, present and future. California Medicine, 1969, 110(l): 34-40.

436. Miles, C. G., Congreve, G., Devanyi, P., Gibbons, R. J., Marshman, J., & Rankin, J. G. A preliminary and tentative progress report on the marijuana project. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto. Unpublished manuscript submitted to the Commission, February, 1972. (A preliminary summary of these studies is presented in Annex B of Chapter 2 of this Report)

437. Miller, D. E. What a policeman should know about marihuana. Eighth Annual Conference Report, National Narcotic Enforcement Officers Association, Louisville, Ky., October 22, 1967. Pp. 52-56.

438. Miller, R. D. Some principles of psychopharmacology: Implications for the social control of drug abuse. Paper presented at the Sir George Williams Symposium on Drug Abuse, Montreal, February, 1969.

439. Miller, R. D., Brewster, J., & Leathers, B. Survey of Ottawa area physicians regarding the non-medical use of drugs. Unpublished Commission research project, 1971.

440. Miller, R. D., Hansteen, R. W., Adamec, C., & Lehmann, H, E. A comparison of A 9-tetrahydrocannibinol and marijuana effects in humans. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1. (A preliminary summary appears in Anney A of Chapter 2 of this Report) 441. Milman, D. H. The role of marihuana in patterns of drug abuse by adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics, 1969, 74(2): 283-290.

442. Miras, C. J. Experience with chronic hashish smokers. In J. R. Wittenborn, Brill, J. P. Smith, & S. A. Wittenborn (Eds.), Drugs and youth. Springfield, Ill.: C. C. Thomas, 1969. Pp. 191 198.

443. Miras, C. J. Clinical not anecdotal evidence. International Journal of Psychiatry, 1970 71, 9: 533 -535.

444. Miras, C. J., & Coutselinis, A. The distribution of tetrahydrocannabinol-14C in humans. UN Secretariat ST/SOA/SER.S/24, November 2, 1970.

445. Miras, C. J., & Coutselims, A. The presence of cannabinols in the urine of' hashish smokers. UN Secretariat ST/SOA/SER.S/25, November 4, 1970.

446. Miras, C. J., Kephalas, T. A., & Papadakis, D. P. The effect of hashish extract on the norepinephrine in rabbit brain. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1971, 23(l): 33

34.

447. Miras, C. J., Simos, S., & Kiburis, J. Comparative assay of the constituents from the sublimate of smoked cannabis with that from ordinary cannabis. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1964, 16(l): 13-15.

448. Mirin, S. M., Shapiro, L. M., Meyer, R. E., Pillard, R. C., & Fisher, S. Casual versus heavy use of marijuana: A redefinition of the marijuana problem. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 12 7(9): 54-60.

449. Mizner, G. L., Barter, J. T., & Werme, P. H. Patterns of drug use among college students: A preliminary report. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1970, 127(f): 55 64.

450. Modell, W. Mass drug catastrophes and the roles of science and technology. Science, 1 967, 156: 346-35 1.

45 1. Mookerjee, H. C. Two major objections to ganja prohibition. Calcutta Review, 1949, 110(7): 1-16.

452. Moore, L. A., Jr. Marijuana (cannabis) bibliography, 1960 1968. Los

Angeles: Bruin Humanist Forum, 1969.

453. Moraes Andrade, 0. The criminogenic action of cannabis (marihuana) and narcotics. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1964, 16(4): 23 28.

454. Moreau de Tours, J. J. Du haschich et de Palienation mentale. Paris: Masson, 1845.

455. Moskowitz, H. (Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif.) Personal communication to the Commission, December, 1971.

456. Munch, J. C. Marihuana and crime. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1966, 18(2): 15-22.

45 7. Murphy, B. W., Leventhal, A. M., & Baiter, M. B. Drug use on the campus: A survey of university health services and counseling centers. Journal of the American College Health Association, 1969, 17: 389-402.

458. Murphy, H. B. M. The cannabis habit: A review of recent psychiatric literature. Addictions, 1966, 13(l): 3-25.

459. Murray, J. (Ed.) A new English dictionary on historical principles. Vol. 5. Linden, Eng.: Oxford Clarendon Press, 190 1.

460. Myers, H. B. Cross tolerance: Altered susceptibility to codein, heroin, cannabis-indica and chloral-hydrate in dogs having an acquired tolerance for morphine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 1916, 8: 417-437.

461. Myers, S. A., & Caldwell, D. F. Effects of marihuana on auditory and visual sensation. Michigan Mental Health Research Bulletin, 1969, 3.- 20-22.

462. Nahas, G. G. Cannabis sativa-an overall view. Unpublished manuscript, Columbia University, New York, nd.

463. Napke, E. (Department of National Health and Welfare, Food and Drug Directorate, (now Health Protection Branch) Biostatistics Division, Ottawa, Ont.) PersonalcommunicationtotheCommission, 1971.

464. Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia. Brief submitted to the Commission, Vancouver, October 30, 1969.

465. National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. Statement of R. K. Stroup. Press release, May 17, 1971. (Contains statements by N. Zinberg, L, Wurmser, J. Fort, A. T. Weil, S. Snyder, & L. Grinspoon)

466. Nattrass, F. J. Cerebral atrophy in young cannabis smokers. (Letter to the editor) Lancet, 1971, 2(7737): 13 14.

467. Neihardt, J. Black Elk speaks of his great vision. In G. Andrews, & S, Vinkenoog (Eds.), The book of grass.- An anthology of Indian hemp. New York: Grove Press, 1967. Pp. 50-63. 468. Neu, R. L., Powers, H. O., King, S., & Gardner, L. 1. Cannabis and chromosomes. (Letter to the editor). Lancet, 1969. P. 675.

469. Neumeyer, J. L., & Shagoury, R. A. Chemistry and pharmacology of marijuana. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1971, 60(10): 1433-1457.

470. Newfoundland Department of Health and Newfoundland Medical Association. Survey of doctors. Cited in Newfoundland Medical Association brief submitted to the Commission. St. John's, Newfoundland, October 24, 1970.

47 1. New York Academy of Science. Discussion. Conference on Marijuana: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Patterns of Social Usage, New York, May, 1971.

472. New York Times. Marijuana turns youth away from beer. New York Times, 1970, 47: 1.

473. New Zealand, Board of Health, Committee on Drug Dependency and Drug Abuse in New Zealand. First report. Wellington: Government Printer, 1970. (New Zealand Board of Health Report Series, 1970, no. 14)

474. Nichols, J. L. Drug use and highway safety: A review of the literature. Report DOT-HS-012-1-019. Unpublished manuscript, U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, D.C., July, 197 1.

475. Nisbet, C. T., & Vakil, F. Some social and economic characteristics of UCLA student marijuana users. Social Science Quarterly, 1971, 52(l): 179-189.

476. Norton, W. A. The marihuana habit: Some observations of a small group Of users. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 1968, 13(2): 163-173.

477. Nowlis, H. H. Drugs on the college campus. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1969.

478. Oestreicher, P., Farmilo, C., Miller, R. D., McNaughton, B., Phelps, D., Willinsky, M., & Mechoulam, R. Chemical aspects of cannabis: A survey Of existing information. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1.

479. Oestreicher, P., Miller, R. D., Beckstead, H., Marshman, J., Larssen, Hemmings, B., Green, M., & Farmilo, C. Chemical analysis of street drugs. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1.

480. OhIsson, A., Abou-Chaar, C. I., Agurell, S., Nilsson, 1. M., Olofsson, K., & Sandberg, F. Cannabinoid constituents of male and female cannabis sativa. Bulletin on Narcotics, 19 7 1, 2 3 ( 1): 2 9 - 3 2.

481, Oki, G., & Sisson, B. V. A study of marihuana users and usage. Unpublished manuscript, Project F-169. Sub-studies 1-16 & 34-70, 2-16 & 34-70, 3-16 & 34-70. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, 1970. (Supplemented by personal communications to the Commission, 197 1)

482. O'Shaughnessy, W. B. On the preparations of the Indian hemp, or Gunjah (Cannabis indica): Their effects on the animal system in health, and their utility in the treatment of tetanus and other convulsive diseases. Provincial Medical Journal and Retrospect Medical Sciences, 1843, 5: 343.

483. Pahnke, W. N., & Richards, W. A. Implications of LSD and experimental mysticism. Journal of Religion and Health, 1966, 5(3): 175 -208.

484. Panzica, N. Legal grass: A caseworker's view. Criminal Law Quarterly, 197 1, 13(4): 445-452. 485. Parker, K. (Hine Laboratory, San Francisco, Calif.) Personal communications to the Commission, 1970.

486. Pars, H. G., & Razdan, R. K. Tetrahydrocannabinols and synthetic analogs. Paper presented at New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Marijuana, Chemistry, Pharmacology and Patterns of Social Usage, May, 197 1.

487. Paschelke, G. (Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) Personal communication to the Commission, April, 197 1.

488. Paton, W. D. M. Drug dependences sociopharmacological assessment. Advancement of Science, 1968, 25: 200-212.

489. Paton, W. D. M. Cannabis. Zenith, 1970, 8(l): 15-17.

490. Paton, W. D. M. (Department of Pharmacology, Oxford University, England) Personal communications to the Commission, 1970 & 197 1.

491. Paton, W. D. M., & Pertwee, R. G. The general pharmacology of cannabis. Acta Pharmaceutica Seucica, 1971, 8: 69 1. (Abstract)

492. Patterson, P. G. R. A rebuttal to Campbell, et al.: Cerebral atrophy in young cannabis smokers. Unpublished manuscript, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, February, 1972.

493. Paulus, 1. Psychedelic drug use on the Canadian Pacific coast: Notes on the new drug scene. International Journal of the Addictions, 1969, 4(l): 77-88.

494. Pearlman, S. Drug use and experience in an urban college population. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1968, 38(3): 503-514.

495. Perez-Reyes, M., Lipton, M. A., & Wall, M. E. The metabolism of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in human subjects. Paper presented at the 5th World Congress of Psychiatry, Ciudad de Mexico, November, 197 1.

496. Perna, D. Psychotogenic effect of marihuana. Journal of the American MedicalAssociation, 1969, 209(7): 1085-1086.

497. Perry, C. New product line to hit grass market. Rolling Stone, January 7, 1971.

498. Persaud, T. V. N., & Ellington, A. C. Teratogenic activity of cannabis resin. (Letter to the editor) Lancet, 1968. Pp. 406-407.

499. Persyko, 1. Marihuana psychosis, (Letter to the editor) American Journal of Psychiatry, 1970, 126(11): 1675-1676.

500. Persyko, 1. Marihuana psychosis revisited. (Letter to the editor) Journal of the American Medical Association, 1971, 216(l): 144.

501. Peterson, K. E. (United States Agricultural and Natural Resources Extension Services, Washington, D. C.) Personal communication to the Commission, December, 1971.

502. Phillips, R. N., Turk, R. F., & Forney, R. B. Acute toxicity of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rats and mice. Societyfor Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1971, 136(l): 260-263.

503. Phillips, R. N., Turk, R. F., Manno, J., Jain, N., Crim, D., & Forney, R. B. Seasonal variation in cannabinolic content of Indiana marihuana. Journal ofForensicSciences, 1970, 15(2): 191-200.

504. Pillard, R. C. Marihuana. New England Journal of Medicine, 1970, 283(6): 294-303.

505. Podolsky, S. Effect of marihuana on glucose tolerance test (GTT). Paper presented at the New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Marijuana: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Patterns of Social Usage, New York, May, 1971.

506. Polonsky,D.,Davis,G.F.,&Roberts,C.F. Afollow-upstudyofthejuvenile drug offender. Sacramento, Calif.: Institute for the Study of Crime and Delinquency, 1967.

507. Pond, D. A. Psychological effects in depressive patients of the marihuana homologue synhexyl. Journal of Neurological and Neurosurgical Psychiatry, 1948, II: 271-279.

508. Popham, R. E. (Ed.) Alcohol and alcoholism. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970.

509. Postel, W. B. Marijuana use in Vietnam: A preliminary report. United States Army Vietnam Medical Bulletin, 1968, 10(11): 56-59.

5 10. Potvin, R. J., & Fried, P. A. Acute and chronic effects on rats of (+ A '-transtetrahydrocannabinol on unlearned motor tasks. Unpublished manuscript, Psychology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, 1972.

511. Powelson, D. H. Clinical notes on the use of marihuana. Unpublished statement to the California Trial Judges, Student Health Services, University of California, Berkeley, October, 1970.

5 12. Pretoria Mental Hospital, Medical Staff. Mental symptoms associated with the smoking of dagga. South African Medical Journal, February 12, 1938. Pp. 85 88.

5 13. Prince, R., Greenfield, R., & Marriott, J. Ganja: The benevolent alternative? Unpublished manuscript, Mental Hygiene Institute, Montreal, 197 1.

514. Rafaelsen, L., Bech, P., Christup, H., & Rafaelsen, 0. J. Cannabis and

alcohol: A comparison of psychological effects. Unpublished manuscript, Rigshospitalet, Psychochemistry Institute, Copenhagen, 197 1.

515. Rafaelsen, 0. J., Bech, P., Christiansen, J., Christrup, H., Kofod, B., Nyboe, J., & Rafaelsen, L. Cannabis and alcohol: Effects on simulated driving. Paper presented at the 5th World Congress of Psychiatry, Ciudad de Mexico, November, 1971.

516. Razdan, R. K., Zitke, B. A., Weinhardt, K. K., Howes, J. F., Dalzell, B. C., Dalzell, H. C., Sheehan, J. C., Pars, H. G., Dewey, W. L., & Harris, L. S. Water-solublederivativesof A,'-and A' (6 )-THC's and the synthesis of the metabolite of A ""'-THC. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 1971, 8: 677 678. (Abstract)

517. Reid, L. D. An investigation into pursuit tracking in the presence of a disturbance signal. Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute Transactions, 1970, 3(l): 35-44.

5 18. Reid, L. D., Hansteen, R. W., & Miller, R. D. The effects of cannabis and alcohol on psychomotor tracking performance. Unpublished Commission research project, 1971. (A preliminary summary appears in Annex A of Chapter 2 of this Report)

5 19. Renault, P. F., Schuster, C. R., Heinrich, R., & Freedman, D. X. Marihuana: Standardization of smoke administration and dose effect curves on heart rate in humans. Paper presented at the National Academy of Science-National Research Council Committee on the Problems of Drug Dependence, Toronto, 1971.

520. Repetto, M. J., & Menendez, M. Etude du cannabis recherche A partir de la plante, de la fum& et des urines. Journal Eurqp@en de Toxicologie, 1970, 6: 392 396.

52 1. Rickles, W. H., Jr., Chatoff, B., & Whitaker, C. Marijuana: A selective bibliography, 1924 1970. Los Angeles, Calif.: Brain Research Institute Publications Office, 1970.

522. Rickles, W. H. Jr., & Whitaker, C. Effects of marijuana on evoked heart rate and skin conductance responses. Psychophysiology, 1971, 8(2): 259-260.

523. Robins, L. N., Darvish, H. S., & Murphy, G. E. The long-term outcome for adolescent drug users: A follow-up study of 76 users and 146 non-users. In J. Zubin & A. M. Freedman (Eds.), The psychopathology of adolescence. New

York: Grune & Stratton, 1970. Pp. 159-180.

524. Robinson, A. E. Recovery of cannabis constituents from the hands at autopsy. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1971, 23(3): 37-40.

525. Robinson, B., & Wright, A. Revival of domestic hemp industry. Chemurgic Digest, May 30, 1942. Pp. 75-76.

526. Robinson, V. An essay on hasheesh. Medical Review of Reviews, 1912, Part 1, 18(3): 159-169. Part II, 18(5): 300-3 13.

527. Rodin, E. A., Domino, E. F., & Porzak, J. P. The marihuana-induced "social high": Neurological and electroencephalographic concomitants. Journal of the American MedicalAssociation, 1970, 213(8): 1300-1302.

528. Rogers, B., Stein, J. P., Martin, N., & Farmilo, R. A study of innovative services in Canada. Unpublished Commission research project, 1970 7 1.

529. Roland, J. L., & Teste, M. Le cannabisme au Maroc. Maroc MMicial, 1958, 37(397): 694-703.

530. Rosevear, J. Pot: A handbook of marihuana. New York: University Books, 1967.

531. Rowell, E. A., & Rowell, R. On the trail of marihuana, the weed of madness. Mountain View, Calif.: Pacific Press, 1939. In A. R. Lindesmith, The addict and the law. New York: Random House, 1965.

532. Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Brief submitted to the Commission, Toronto, October, 1969.

533. Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Brief submitted to the Commission, Ottawa, March, 1970. (With Appendix 2 Effects of drug abuse: Relationship between drug use and criminality)

534. Rubin, V. (Research Institute for the Study of Man, New York, N.Y.) Personal communications to the Commission, May, 1971, and February, 1972.

535. Rubin, V., Comitas, L., Beaubrun, M. et al. Study of chronic marihuana users in Jamaica. Ongoing research, Research Institute for the Study of Man, New York, 197 1.

536. Russell, J. Survey of drug use in selected British Columbia schools. Vancouver: Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia, 1970.

537. Russell, J. (Narcotics Addiction Foundation of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.) Personal communications to the Commission, 1970 197 1.

538. Russell, W. R. Cerebral atrophy in young cannabis smokers. (Letter to the editor) Lancet, 1971, 2(7737): 13 14.

539. Ryrfeldt, A., Ramsay, C. H., Agurell, S., Nilsson, 1. M., & Widman, M. Whole-body autoradiographic studies on the distribution of I "')tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in mice after intravenous administration. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 1971, 8: 704-705. (Abstract)

540. Sajous, C. E. de M., & Sajous, L. T. de M. Sajous's analtyic cyclopedia of practical medicine. Vol 3. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1924.

541. Santos, M., Sampaio, M. R. P., Fernandes, N. S., & Carlini, E. A. Effects of Cannabis sativa (marihuana) on the fighting behavior of mice. Psychopharmacologia, 1966, 8: 43 7-444. 542. Scheckel, C. L., Boff, E., Dahlen, P., & Smart, T. Behavioral effects in monkeys of racemates of two biologically active marijuana constituents. Science, 1968, 160: 1467-1469. 543. Scher, J. The marihuana habit. (Letter to the editor) Journal of the American MedicalAssociation, 1970, 214(6): 1120.

544. Schofield, M. The strange case ofpot. Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin, 197 I.

545. Schultes, R. E. The plant kingdom and hallucinogens: Part 1. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1969, 2 1(3): 3-53. 546. Schultes, R. E. Random thoughts and queries on the botany of cannabis. In C. R. B. Joyce, & S. H. Curry (Eds.), The botany and chemistry of cannabis.

London: J. & A. Churchill, 1970. Pp. I] -39.

547. Schwarz, C. J. LSD, marihuana and the law. British Columbia Medical Journal, 1967, 9: 274-285.

548. Schwarz, C. J. Toward a medical understanding of marihuana. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 1969, 14(6): 591-600.

549. Schwarz, C. J. (Student Health Services, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.) Personal communication to the Commission, June, 197 I.

550. Schwarz, C. J. A toxic theory linking acute cannabis intoxication and regular use. Paper presented at the Western Institute of Drug Problems, Marijuana Conference, Portland, Oreg., August, 197 1.

551. Segal, M. Science and emotionalism in the marihuana issue. Scotian Journal, Halifax, May, 1971. (Supplemented by personal communication to the Commission,)

552. Sehon, A. (University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man.) Personal communication to the Commission, 197 1.

553. Shean, G. D., & Fechtmann, F. Purpose in life scores of student marihuana users. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1971, 27(l): 112-113.

554. Shick, J. F. F., Smith, D. E., & Meyers, F. H. Use of marijuana in the HaightAshbury subculture. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 1968, 2(l): 49-66.

555. Shulgin, A. T. Recent developments in cannabis chemistry. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 1968, 2(l): 14-29.

556. Siegel, R. K. (Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Los Angeles, Calif.) Personal communication to the Commission, May, 1970.

5 57. Siegel, R. K. Hallucinogens and perceptual changes. Drug Therapy, September, 197 1. Pp. 34-44.

558. Siegel, R. K., Miller, R. D., & Hansteen, R. W. Cannabis induced visual imagery. Unpublished Commission research project, 1971.

559. Siegel, R. K., & Poole, J. Psychedelic-induced social behavior in mice: A preliminary report. Psychological Reports, 1969, 25: 704-706.

560. Sigg, B. W. Chronic cannabism: Fruit of underdevelopment and capitalism. Unpublished manuscript, Algiers, Algeria, 1963. (Translated from French)

561. Siler, J. F., Sheep, W. L., Bates, L. B., Clark, G. F., Cook, G. W., & Smith, W. A. Mariajuana smoking in Panama. Military Surgeon, 1933, 73: 269-280. 562. Silver, D. (Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, P.Q.) Personal communications to the Commission, May and August, 197 1.

563. Simmons, J. L. (Ed.) Marihuana: Myths and realities. North Hollywood: Brandon House, 1967.

564. Singh, M., & Steadward, R. Effects of smoking marijuana on physical performance. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Physical Education, University of Alberta, 197 1. (Supplemented by personal communication to the Commission)

565. Singhal, R., & Ling, G. M. Report to the Non-Medical Use of Drugs Program. Unpublished manuscript, University of Ottawa, October, 197 1.

566. Skinner, R. F. The state of the art in the analysis of marihuana. Proceedings of the Western Pharmacological Society, 1971, 14: 4-9.

567. Small, E. An agricultural perspective of marijuana. Unpublished Commission research paper, May, 197 1.

568. Small, E. Interim report on studies of cannabis undertaken jointly by the Departments of Agriculture and National Health and Welfare. Unpublished report to the Commission, Ottawa, December, 197 1.

569. Smart, R. G., & Fejer, D. Drug use among adolescents and their parents: Closing the generation gap in mood modification. Unpublished manuscript, Project J-183, Sub-study 3-7 Sub-study & Jo-70, Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, 1970.

570. Smart, R. G., & Fejer, D. Marihuana use among adults in Toronto.

Unpublished manuscript, Project J-183, 6-7 & Jo-71. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, 197 1.

57 1. Smart, R. G., & Fejer, D. Recent trends in illicit drug use among adolescents. Canada's Mental Health, 197 1, Suppl. 68.

5 72. Smart, R. G., Fejer, D., & White, J. The extent of drug use in metropolitan, Toronto schools: A study of changes from 1968 to 1970. Addictions, 1971, 18(l): I- 17.

5 73. Smith, D. E. Acute and chronic toxicity of marijuana. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 1968, 2(l): 37 45.

573a. Smith, D. E. (Ed.) The new social drug: Cultural, medical, and legal perspectives on marijuana. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970.

574. Smith, D. E., & Bentel, D. J. Fourth annual report to the legislature. Drug abuse information project. Unpublished report, San Francisco Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, December, 1970.

5 75. Smith, D. E., & Luce, J. Love needs care: A history of San Francisco's HaightAshbury Free Medical Clinic and its pioneer role in treating drug-abuse problems. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 197 1.

5 76. Smith, D. E., & Mehl, C. An analysis of marijuana toxicity. In D. E. Smith (Ed.), The new social drug: Cultural, medical and legal perspectives on marijuana. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970.

5 77. Smith, J. P. New developments in drug abuse. Paper presented at the National Symposium on Drug Abuse, University of California, San Francisco, February, 1972. 5 78. Snyder, S. H. Uses of marijuana. New York: Oxford University Press, 197 1.

5 79. Sofia, R. D., Dixit, B. N., & Barry, H., 111. The effect of A 1tetrahydrocannabinol on serotonin metabolism in the rat brain. Life Sciences, 1971, 10(l): 425-436. 580. Sofia, R. D., Kubena, R. K., & Barry, H., 111. Comparison of four vehicles for intraperitoneal administration of delta-l-tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, in press.

581. Solomon,D.(Ed.) Themarihuanapapers.NewYork:NewAmericanLibary, 1966.

582. Solursh, L. (Western Hospital, Toronto, Ont.) Personal communication to the Commission, May, 1971.

583. Soueif, M. 1. Hashish consumption in Egypt, with special reference tO psychosocialaspects.BulletinonNarcotics, 1967, 19(2): 1-12.

584. Soueif, M. 1. The use of cannabis in Egypt: A behavioural study. Bulletin on Narcotics, 1971.23(4): 17-28.

585. Spencer, D. J. Cannabis induced psychosis. West Indian Medical Journal, 1970, 19(4): 228 230.

586. Steffenhagen, R. A. Emotional stability and student drug use. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Student Drug Surveys, Newark, N.J. September 13, 197 1.

587. Sterne, J., & Ducastaing, C. Les art6rites du cannabis indica. Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux 1960, 53(2): 143-147.

588. Stevenson. G. H., Lingley, L. R. A., Trasov, G. E., & Stanfield, H. Drug

addiction in British Columbia. Unpublished manuscript, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1956.

589. Stone, H. M., & Stevens, H. M. The detection of cannabis constituents in the mouth and on the fingers of smokers. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 1969, 9(1&2): 31 34.

590. Stringaris, M. G. Hashish addiction: PsychopatholoKY clinical study, sociology, criminoloKy. Berlin: Springer, 1939. (Translated from the German)

591. Suchman, E. A. The "hang-loose" ethic and the spirit of drug use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1968, 9(2): 146 155.

592. Susser, M. Cerebral atrophy in young cannabis smokers. (Letter to the editor) Lancet, 197 1, 1(7740): 41-42.

593. Sweden, Royal Medical Board's Committee for Care of Narcotic Addicts. Narkotikaproblemet.- Del III.- Samordnade Igirder. [The narcotic problem: Part III: Coordinated measures]. Stockholm: Offical Government Report, 1969, No. 52.

594. Symposium on Biochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Dependence and Reports on Marihuana Research, Amsterdam, September, 197 1.

595. Symposium on the Chemistry and Biological Activity of Cannabis, Stockholm, October, 1971. (Abstracts from this meeting were published in Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 1971, 8: 671-706.

596. Takala, M., Pihkanen, T. A., & Markkanen, T. The effects of distilled and brewed beverages: A physiological, neurological and psychological study. Finnish Foundation of Alcohol Studies, 1957, No. 4.

597. Talbott,J.A.,&Teague,J.W. Marihuanapsychosis.JournaloftheAmerican MedicalAssociation, 1969, 219(2): 299-302.

598. Tart, C. On being stoned: A psychological study of marijuana intoxication. Palo Alto, Calif.: Science and Behavior Books, 197 1.

599. Taylor, B. Central Asia. New York: Scribner, 1893.

600. Taylor, N. Narcotics: Nature's dangerous gifts. New York: Dell, 1966.

601. Tennant, F. S., Guerry, R. L., & Henderson, R. L. (Letter to the editor) Journal of the American Medical Association, 1971, 217(12): 1707.

602. Tennant, F. S., Preble, M., Prendergast, T. J., & Ventry, P. Medical manifestations associated with hashish. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1971, 2 16(12): 1965-1969.

603. Theodor, L., & Miller, R. D. The effects of marijuana on visual signal detection, and the recovery of visual acuity after exposure to glare. Unpublished Commission research project, 1971. (A preliminary summary appears in Annex A of Chapter 2 of this Report)

604. Thompson, D. An outsider looks at some aspects of forestry. Paper presented at a meeting of the Ottawa Valley Section of the Canadian Institute of Forestry, Ottawa, Ont., November 18, 197 1.

605. Thompson, G. R., Rosenkrantz, H., & Braude, M. C. Neurotoxicity of cannabinoids in chronically-treated rats and monkeys. Paper presented at the American Chemical Society, Washington, September, 197 1.

606. Thompson, T., & Schuster, C. R. Behavioralpharmacoloxy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968.

607. Thurlow, H. J. Brief communications and clinical notes: On drive state and cannabis. Canadian Ps,ychiatric Association Journal, 1971, 16(2): 181-182,

608. Tiffany, W. J. The mcntal health of army troops in Viet Nam. American Journalo Ps chiatry, 1967, 123(12): 1585-1586.

If J

609. Time. Message of' history's biggest happening: Woodstock music and art fair. Time, 1969, 94: 32 33.

6 10. Tinklenberg, J. R. (Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, Calif.) Personal communication to the Commission, April, 197 1.

6 11. Tinklenberg, J. R., Kopell. B. S., Hollister, L. E., & Melges, F. T. A comparison of the effects of marihuana and ethanol on memory, evoked potential, and contingent negative variation. Paper presented at the Cannabis Study Group, American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, San Juan, Calif., 1970.

612. Tinklenberg, J. R., Melges, F. T., Hollister, L. E. & Gillespie, H. K. Marijuana and immediate memory. Nature, 1970, 226(5251): 1171-1172.

613. Tinklenberg, J. R., & Stillman, R. C. Drug use and violence. In D.N. Daniels et al (Eds.), Violence and the struggle for existence. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co., 1970.

614. Todd, A. R. Chemistry of the hemp drugs. Nature, 1940, 146(3713): 829- 830.

6 15. Truitt, E. B., Jr. Biotransformation of tetrahydrocannabinol in animals and man. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Drug Abuse, Toronto, Ont., August, 1970.

616. Truitt, E. B., Jr. Pharmacological activity in a metabolite of I-trans-,l 8tetrahydrocannabinol. Federation Proceedings, 1970, 29(2): 619. (Abstract)

617. Truitt, E. B., Jr. Some policy considerations of marihuana legalization based upon currently evolving research. In Policy concerning drug abuse in New York State. Volume 11. Croton-on-Hudson, N.Y.: Hudson Institute, 1970. Pp. 48-59.

618. Truitt, E. B., Jr. Biologic disposition of tetrahydrocannabinols. Paper presented in part at the First Midwestern Conference on Drug Metabolism, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, January, 197 1.

6 19. Truitt, E. B., Jr., & Anderson, S. H. Biogenic amine alterations produced in the brain by tetrahydrocannabinols and their metabolites. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 197 1, in press.

620. Turk, R. F., Manno, J. E., Jain, N. C., & Forney, R. B. The identification, isolation, and preservation of A 9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( L 9 THQ. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 1971, 23: 190-195.

62 1. Turk, R. F., Phillips, R. N., Manno, J. E., Jain, N. C., & Forney, R. B. Separation of marihuana components by gas-liquid chromatography. Toxicology of Applied Pharmacology, 1970, 17(l): 313.

622. Turner, C. (School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, Miss.) Personal communication to the Commission, November, 197 I.

623. Tylden, E. Cannabis taking in England. Newcastle Medical Journal, 1968, 30(6): 533.

624. Udell. J. G_ & Smith, R. S. Attitudes and the usage of other drugs among users and nonusers of marijuana in a high school population. Bureau Of

Business Research and Service, Graduate School of Business, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., October 1969. (Wisconsin Project Reports, 4, no. 4.)

62 5. Ungerleider, J. T., Fisher, D. D., Goldsmith, S. R., Fuller, M., & Forgy, E. A statistical survey ofadverse reactions to LSD in Los Angeles County. American Journal o Psychiatry, 1968, 125(3): 108-113.

626. Ungerleider, J. T., Frank, I., & Feinstein, D. (UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute, Los Angeles, Calif.) Personal communication to the Commission, February, 1972.

62 7. Union of South Africa, Inter-departmental Committee on the Abuse of Dagga. Report. Pretoria: Government Printer, 1952.

628. United Nations, Division of Narcotic Drugs. Bibliography: Cannabis sativa. Bulletin on Narcotics, 195 1, 3( I&2) (and current supplements).

629. United Nations Economic and Social Council. The question of cannabis: Cannabis bibliography. E/CN.7-479. September, 1965.

630. United States Congress, House, Committee on Armed Services. Inquiry into alleged drug abuse in the armed services: Report of a special subcommittee, 92d Cong., 2d sess., Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 197 1.

63 1. United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Marihuana and Health. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 197 1. (First annual report to Congress)

632. United States Information Service. U.S. orders halt in use of herbicide. United States Embassy, Ottawa, April 2 1, 1970. (Press release) 633. United States President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. Task Force report: Narcotics and drug abuse. Washington, D. C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967. 634. United States, National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, Research Staff. Crimes of violence. Vol. 12. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969. (Staff report prepared by D. J. Mulvihill, M. M. Turnin, & L. A. Curtis) 635. United States, White House Conference on Narcotic and Drug Abuse. Proceedings. Washington, D. C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1962.

636. Unwin, J. R. Non-medical use of drugs with particular reference to youth. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1969, 101: 72-88. (Position paper included in Canadian Medical Association brief to the Commmission, November 7, 1969)

637. Unwin, J. R. (Allan Memorial Institute of Psychiatry, Montreal, P.Q.) Personal communication to the Commission, May, 197 1. 638. Van Sim, M. Discussion. In D. Efron (Ed.), Psychotomimetic drugs. Long Island. N.Y.: Raven Press. 1970.

639. Vestal, S. Sitting Bull's vision of victory. In G. Andrews, & S. Vinkenoog (Eds.), The book of grass: An anthology of Indian hemp. New York: Grove Press, 1967. Pp. 47 49.

640. Vogel, V. H. Excerpts from statements regarding marijuana use made by 100 consecutive heroin addicts. Unpublished manuscript, California Rehabilitation Center, August, 1967.

641. Volavka, J., Dornbush, R., Feldstein, S., Clare, C., Zaks, A., Fink, M., & Freedman, A. M. Marijuana, EEG and behavior. Paper presented at the New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Marijuana: Chemistry, Pharmcology and Patterns of Social Usage, May, 197 1.

642. Vree, T. B., Breinier, D. D., van Ginneken, C. A. M., & van Rossum, J. M. Identification of the methyl and propyl hornologues of CBD, THC and CBN in hashish by a new method of combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acta Pharmaceutica Seucica, 1971, 8: 683-684. (Abstract)

643. Wahlqvist, M., Nilsson, 1. M., Sandberg, F., & Agurell, S. Binding of a tetrahydrocannabinol to human plasma proteins. Biochemical Pharmacology, 1970,19:2579-2584.

644. Waller, C. W. (Research Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Mississippi, Miss.) Personal communication to the Commission, April, 197 1.

645. Waller, C. W., & Denny, J. J. Annotated bibliography of marihuana 19641970. University, Miss.: The Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Mississippi, 197 1.

646. Waller, J. A. Chronic medical conditions and traffic safety: Review of the California experience. New England Journal of Medicine, 1965, 273(26): 14131420.

647. Waller, J. A. Identification of problem drinking among drunken drivers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1967, 200(2): 124-130. 648. Waller, J. A. Drugs and highway crashes. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1971, 215(9): 1477-1482@

649. Waller, J. A., & Goo, J. T. Highway crash and citation patterns and chronic medical conditions. Journal of SafetyResearch, 1969, 1: 13-27.

650. Walters, P. A., Jr., Goethals, G. W., & Pope, H. G., Jr. Drug use and life-style among 500 college undergraduates. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1972, 26: 92-96.

651. Walton, R. P. Marihuana.- America's new drug problem. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1938.

652. Warnock, J. Insanity from hasheesh. Journal of Mental Science, 1903, 49: 96-110.

653. Washington, G. Diary notes. In G. Andrews, & S. Vinkenoog (Eds.), The book of grass: An anthology of Indian hemp. New York: Grove Press, 1967. P. 34. 654. Washington State Department of Motor Vehicles, Research Division. Project METER, an evaluation. Washington State Department of Motor Vehicles, Olympia, Wash., January, 197 1.

655. Waskow, 1. E., Olsson, J. E., Salzman, C., & Katz, M. M. Psychological effects of tetrahydrocannabinol. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1970, 22(2): 97-107. 656. Webster's Third New International Dictionary. Springfield, Mass.: G.&C. Merriam, 196 1.

657. Weil, A. T. Adverse reactions to triarihuana: Classification and suggested treatment. New EnglandJournal of Medicine, 1970, 282(18): 997- 1000.

658. Weil, A. T. Testimony before the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, Washington, D.C., May 18, 197 1.

659. Weil, A. T. (Sterling, Va.) Personal communication to the Commission, August, 1971.

660. Weil, A. T., & Zinberg, N. E. Acute effects of marihuana on speech. Nature, 1969, 222 (5 192): 434 437.

661. Weil, A. T., Zinberg, N. E., & Nelson, J. M. Clinical and psychological effects of marihuana in man. Science, 1968, 162: 1234 1242.

662. Welch, B. L., Welch, A. S., Messiha, F. S., & Berger, H. J. Rapid depletion of adrenal epinephrine and elevation of telencephalic serotonin by (-)-trans- A 9tetrahydrocannabinol in mice. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology, 1971, 2(3): 382-39 1.

663. Wendt, G. R. Effects of certain drugs used in self-medication in relation to driving performance and traffic hazards. Conference Proceedings: Health, Medical and Drug Factors in Highway Safety, NAS-NRC Publication 328, 1954. Pp. 2.26-2.3 1.

664. West, L. J. Effects of long-term use. In N. Q. Brill, The marijuana problem. Annals of InternalMedicine, 1970, 73(3): 449-465.

665. Whitaker, R. Drugs and the law: The Canadian scene. Toronto: Methuen, 1969.

666. Whitehead, P. C. Head or brain? Drug use and academic performance. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Sociology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, 1969. 667. Whitlock, L. Marijuana. Crime and Delinquency Literature, 1970, 2(3): 363- 382.

668. Whitty, C. W. M. Cerebral atrophy in young cannabis smokers. (Letter to the editor) Lancet, 1971, 2(7738): 138 1. 669. Widman, M., Nilsson, 1. M., Nilsson, J. L. G., Sandberg, F., Agurell, S., & Granstrand, B. Binding of A 1-tetrahydrocannabinol and 7-hydroxy- A Itetrahydrocannabinol to human plasma proteins. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 1971, 8: 706. (Abstract) 670. Williams, E. G., Himmelsbach, C. K., Wikler, A., & Ruble, D. C., Studies on marihuana and pyrahexyl compound. Public Health Reports, 1946, 61(29): 1059 1083. 671. Williams, H. R. Treatment of the narcotic addict with some observations on other drug dependencies. British Columbia Medical Journal, 1969, 1 1 (1): I I - 13. 672. Willinsky, M. D. Analytical aspects of cannabis chemistry. In R. Mechoulam (Ed.), Cannabis-Chemical, pharmacological and clinical aspects. New York: Academic Press, 197 1, in press. 673. Willinsky, M. D. (Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.) Personal communication to the Commission, 197 1.

674. Wolff, P. 0. Marihuana in Latin America: The threat it constitutes. Washington, D.C.: Linacre Press, 1949. (Translated from Spanish) 675. Wolstenholme, G. E. W., & Knight, J. (Eds.) Hashish: Its chemistry and pharmacology. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1945.

676. Wood, H. C. On the medical activity of the hemp plant as grown in North

America. In R.R. Lingeman, Drugs from A to Z.- A dictionary. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969. P. 15 1.

677. Woodhouse, E. J. (Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, Mo.) Personal communication to the Commission, April, 197 1.

678. World Health Organization. The use of cannabis.- Report of a W11O scientific group. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 478), 197 1.

679. Worm, K., Mbrkholdt Andersen, J., Nielsen, E., Schou, J., & Steentoft, A. Studies on the metabolism and disposition of A 9-THC in Danish pigs before and after prolonged intravenous administration of A 9-THC. Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 1971, 8: 690 691.(Abstract)

680. Zimmerberg, B., Glick, S. D., & Jarvick, M. E. Impairment of recent memory by marihuana and THC in rhesus monkeys. Nature, 1971, 233(5318): 343-345.

681. Zimmering, P., Toolan, J., Safrin, P., & Wortis, S. B. Drug addiction in relation to problems of adolescence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1952-3, 109:272-278.

682. Zinberg, N. E., & Weil, A. T. A comparison of marijuana users and nonusers. Nature, 1970, 226: 119-123.

Chapter 3. Legal and Illegal Sources and Distribution of Cannabis

REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Alverson, C. Ketama: Morocco's hash capital. Rolling Stone, August 5, 197 1. Pp. 22 24.

2. Anonymous. Hashish trade studied by U.N. New York Times, September 20, 1959.

3. Anonymous. On selling marijuana. In E. Goode (Ed.), Marijuana. New York: Atherton Press, 1970. Pp. 92 102. 4. Anonymous. Vermont key point in drug smuggling. Montreal Star, August 27, 1971.

5. Anonymous. Alberta RCMP seizes 600 pounds of hashish. Globe and Mail (Toronto), December 14, 197 1.

6. Anonymous. 600 pounds of hash seized, 7 held. Montreal Gazette, December 14, 1971.

7. Anonymous. Farmers going to pot. Ottawa Citizen, December 16, 1971. P. 1.

8. Aubin, R., & Letourneau, G. Committed users study: Final report. Unpublished Commission research paper, Montreal, 1970.

9. Belair, F., Jr. Mexico is asked to help combat drug smuggling. New York Times, September 9, 1969.

10. Belair, F., Jr. U.S. officials hope drive at Mexican border will reduce use of marijuana by raising its price. New York Times, September 14, 1969.

11. Belair, F., Jr. Drug drive opens at Mexico border. New York Times, September 22, 1969.

12. Belair, F., Jr. Operation Intercept: Success on land, futility in the air. New York Times, October 2, 1969.

13. Bill and Lucy. Rapping with a dealer. Guerilla, April, 1971, 22: 14-16.

14. Braun, J. War on hash in the Holy Land. Rolling Stone, January 6, 1972. Pp. 18 19.

15. Carey, J. T. The college drug scene. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968.

16. Carriere, J. R. R. Personal communication to the Commission, RCMP Headquarters, Ottawa, December 24, 197 1.

17. Carriere, J. R. R. Personal communication to the Commission, RCMP Headquarters, Ottawa, February 27, 1972.

18. Chan, M. The onslaught of the 1970 draught. Rolling Stone, June II, 1970.

19. Couture, P. M. Street dealing: The myth of reality and the reality of myth. Unpublished student essay, Sociology Dept. (course #53.255b), Carleton University, Ottawa, December, 1971.

20. Craigie, L. Dealing hashish: The establishment within a subculture. Unpublished student essay, Sociology Dept. (course #53.255b), Carleton University, Ottawa, December, 1971.

21. Darrough, W. Committed users study: Vancouver report. Unpublished Commission research project, 1970.

22. de Onis, J. Mexican farmers discover big money in grass. New York Time,, September 21, 1969.

23. Dilworth, C. The pusher. Unpublished student essay, Sociology Department (course # 53:245), Carleton University, Ottawa, April, 197 1.

24. Eszterhas, J. Goin' back to Indiana, where dope grows wild. Rolling Stone, October 28, 197 1.

25. Geller, A. S., & Boas, M. The drug beat. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1969.

26. Goode, E. The marijuana market. Columbia Forum, Winter 1969. Pp. 4-8. 7. Goode, E. The marijuana smokers. New York: Basic Books, 1970. 28. Green, T. Smugglers. New York: Walker, 1969.

29. Hoffman, A. Steal this book. New York: Grove Press, 197 1.

30. Hughes, J. The junk merchants: International narcotics traffic. Part 5. Ominous trend: Young people on 'pot trail' graduate to narcotics smuggling. Christian Science Monitor, June 12, 1970. P. I 1.

31. Kamstra, J. Dope run. Earth, September 197 1. Pp. 66-72.

32. Kaplan, M. 3 tons of marijuana seized in Queens. New York Times, December 3, 197 1.

33. Kifner, J. Mexico: 'Panic' over a marijuana crackdown. New York Times, September 14, 197 1.

34. Kimball, G. The great grass harvest in River City. Scanlan's, August 1970, 1(6): 21-26. 35. King,W. Arisingdemandformarijqanalurestheyoungintosmuggling.New York Times, February 16, 1971.

36. King, W. Marijuana selling in the U.S.: Efficiency despite some chaos. New York Times, February 17, 197 1.

37. King, W. The young marijuana sellers: Thousands got started as users. New York Times, February 17, 197 1.

38. Kohn, J. Superpusher. East Village Other, January 10, 1969. Pp. 3, 14-15.

39. Kohn, J. Midipusher. East Village Other, January 24, 1969. Pp. 6-7, 2 1.

40. Kramer, L. The grass and hash business at Syracuse University, Fortune, 1971, 84(3): 102-103.

41. Macauley, J. A. Personal communication to the Commission, RCMP Headquarters, Ottawa, January 19, 1970.

42. Mandel, J. Myths and realities of marihuana pushing. In I.L. Simmons (Ed.), Marihuana.- Myths and realities. Hollywood Calif.: Brandon House, 1967. Pp. 58-110.

43. Masters, J. The high school drug pusher-he's happy, personable and rich. Toronto Daily Star, April 2, 197 1.

44. McGlothlin, W. H. Marijuana: An analysis of use, distribution and control (revised). Paper prepared for United States Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, June 197 1.

45. McNeill, D. Green grows the grass on the lower east side. The Village Voice, December 1, 1966. Pp. 3, 2 1.

46. Perry, C. New product line to hit grass market. Rolling Stone, January 7, 1971.

47. Quebec, Department of Justice. Brief to the Commission, 1969.

48. Ric. I turned on 200 fellow students at the U. of Mich. Esquire, September 1967. Pp. 10 1, 190 19 1.

49. Ross, A. Tough times come for an underground capitalist. Financial Post, March 19, 1971.

50. Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Research into organized crime and international drug traffic with replies to questions raised by the Commission. Unpublished paper, Ottawa, n.d.

5 1. Schanberg, S. H. Peasants harvest hashish for big profits in the Vale of Kashmir. New York Times, October 6, 1969.

52. Schelling, T. C. Economics and criminal enterprise. Public Interest, Spring, 1967, 7: 6 1-78.

53. Segal, J. B. Bringing in a couple of keys what are the risks? New York Times, November 29, 1970.

54. Stern, M. Farmers in midwest aiding U.S. in plan to wipe out marijuana. New York Times, Friday, June II, 197 1.

55. Stoddart, K. Committed users study: Vancouver report. Unpublished Commission research project, 1970.

56. Tichborne, R. Tales of Mexico and marijuana. Scanlan's, August, 1970, 1(6): 6-26.

5 7. United States, Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs. Drug traffic in South America. Unpublished manuscript, 197 1.

58. United States, the Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Customs. Halfbillion drug seizures by Customs. News Release, July 26, 197 1.

59. Waldron, M. The drug scene: Nation's illegal traffic is valued at up to $400million annually. New York Times, January 12, 1968.

60. Warner, E. G. Sources of hallucinogenic drugs, including marijuana: The nature and economic significance of the trade. In S. R. Wittenborn, H. Brill, J. P. Smith, & S. D. Wittenborn, (Eds.), Drugs and youth. Springfield Ill.: C. C. Thomas, 1969. Pp. 161-167.

61. Woolfrey, J. Committed users study: Winnipeg report. Unpublished Commission research project, 1970.

62. Zane, M. 5-ton grass bust on the high seas. Rolling Stone, June 10, 197 1.

Chapter 4. Patterns and Extent of Cannabis Use

REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Adler, N. Campus drug culture. PerlSe, Fall, 1966. Pp. 38-41.

2. Adler, N. The antimonian personality: The hippie character type. Psychiatry, 1968,31:325 338.

3. Affleck, B. A., & Dohan, M. E. A descriptive study of a new youth subculture. Unpublished master's dissertation, McGill University School of Social Work, Montreal, 1968.

4. Ahmed, S. N. Patterns ofjuvenile drug use. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1967. No. 68-5672.

5. Allen, J. R., & West, L. J. Flight from violence: Hippies and the green rebellion. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1968, 125(3): 364-370. 6. Anonymous. Court case shows drug menace here. Montreal Gazette, June 22, 1933. 7. Anonymous. The increasing menace of marijuana. Canadian Medical Associ- ation Journal, 1934,31:561. 8. Anonymous. Marijuana. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1934, 31: 544-546. 9. Anonymous. Background on the addicting drugs most frequently used in

Canada. Addictions, 1961, 8(3): 15-19. 10. Axelrod, C., & Rubinstein, S. Recreational drugs. Unpublished manuscript, Office of the Dean of Students, Sir George Williams University, Montreal, 1969.

11. Becker, H. S. Becoming a marihuana user. American Journal of Sociology, 1953, 59: 235-242. 12. Becker, H. S. Marihuana use and social control. Social Problems, 1955, 3: 35- 44.

13. Becker, H. S. Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. Glencoe, N.Y.: The Free Press, 1963. 14. Becker, H. S. Marihuana: A sociological overview. In D. Solomon (Ed.), The marihuanapapers. New York: Signet, 1966. Pp. 65-102.

15. Becker, H. S. Personal communication to the Commission at private meeting on "Causes and social context of the drug phenomenon", December, 1970.

16. Biernacki, P., & Davis, F. "Turning off": A study of ex-marijuana users. Paper presented at the Conference on Drug Use and Drug Sub-cultures, Asilornar, Calif., February, 1970.

17. Bloomquist, E. R. Marijuana. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Glencoe Press, 1968.

18. Blum, R. H. A history of cannabis. In R. H. Blum & Associates, Society and drugs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969. Pp. 61-68.

19. Blumer, H. The world of youthful drug use. Add centerproject: Final report. Berkeley, Calif.: School of Criminology, University of California, 1967.

20. Brau, J. L. Histoire de la drogue. Paris: Claude Tchou, 1968.

21. Campbell, 1. L. Drug use at Bishop's University (fifth preliminary report). Unpublished manuscript, Montreal, January, 1970.

22. Campbell, 1. L. Non-medical psychoactive drug use at Bishop's University, 1965 1970. Unpublished manuscript, Montreal, September, 1970.

23. Carey, J. T. The college drug scene. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968.

24. Carey, J. T. Marihuana use among the new bohemians. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 1968, 2(l): 79-92.

25. Cism, 1. H., & Manheimer, D. 1. Marijuana use among adults in a large city and suburb. Paper presented at the New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Marijuana, May 20-21, 197 1.

26. Coleclough, A., & Hanley, L. G. Marijuana users in Toronto. In W. E. Mann (Ed.), Deviant behavior in Canada. Toronto: Social Science Publishers, 1968. Pp.257 291.

27. Darrough, W. Vancouver report. Sub-study of M. Green, Committed users study. Unpublished Commission research project, 1970.

28. DeFleur, L. B., & Garrett, G. R. Dimensions of marijuana usage in a landgrant university. Journal of Counseling Psycholog y, 1970, 17(5): 468-476.

29. Geis, G. Social and epidemiological aspects of marihuana use. Paper presented at the Illinois State Medical Society's National Symposium on the Psychedelic Drugs and Marihuana. Chicago, April II, 1968.

30. Geller, A., & Boas, M. The drug beat. New York: Cowles, 1969.

31. Goode, E. The marijuana smokers. New York: Basic Books, 1970.

32. Gormely, S. Drugs and the Canadian scene. Toronto: Pagurian Press, 1970.

33. Green, M. Committed users study. Unpublished Commission research project, 1971.

34. Green, M., & Leathers, B. Adult drug users study. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1.

35. Grinspoon, L. Marihuana reconsidered. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1 9 7 1.

36. Grupp, S. E., McCain, M. J., & Schmitt, R. L. Marijuana use in a small college: A midwest example. International Journal of the Addictions, 1971, 6(3): 463-485. 37. Hackler, J. C. A sociological perspective on the non-medical use of drugs. Unpublished Commission research paper, 1970.

38. Haines, L., & Green, W. Marijuana use patterns. British Journal of the Addictions, 1970, 65: 347-362.

39. Hinckle, W. The social history of the hippies. Ramparts, 1967, 5(9): 5-26.

40. Hochman, J. S. Testimony to the Committee on Criminal Procedures. CalifOrma State Assembly, Los Angeles, March 30, 197 1.

41. Kaplan, J. Marijuana.- The new prohibition. New York: World Publishing, 1970.

42. Kaplan, R. Review of C. Winick, Marijuana use by young people. In E. Harms (Ed.), Drug addiction in youth. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1965. PP19 35. Journal of Alcohol Education, 1966, 12(3): 36 38.

43. Kaufman, J., Allen, J. R., & West, L. J. Runaways, hippies and marihuana. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 126(5): 163-166.

44. Keeler, M. H. Motivation for marihuana use: A correlate of adverse reaction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1968, 125(3): 142-146.

45. Keniston, K. Drug use and student values. Paper presented at National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Drug Education Conference, Washington, D.C., November 7-8, 1966.

46. King, J., McDonald, D., & Sallourn, H. A survey on the use of marihuana and LSD in the University of Saskatchewan, Regina campus, and in Regina high schools. Unpublished manuscript, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, n.d.

47. Lanphier, C. M., & Phillips, S. B. The non-medical use of drugs and associated attitudes: A national household survey. Unpublished Commission research project, 1971.

48. Lanphier, C. M., & Phillips, S. B. Secondary school students and non-medical drug use: A national survey of students enrolled in grades seven through thirteen. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1.

49. Lanphier, C. M., & Phillips, S. B. University students and non-medical drug use: A national survey. Unpublished Commission research project, 197 1. 50. Letourneau, G., & Aubin, R. Rapport de Montr&al. Sub-study of M. Green, Committed users study. Unpublished Commission research project, 1970.

51. Lingeman, R. R. Drugsfrom A to Z.- A dictionary. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.

52. Lipton, L. The holy barbarians. New York: Jullian Messner, 1959.

53. Malcolm, X. The autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Grove Press, 1964.

54. Manheimer, D. 1. Marijuana use among adults in two San Francisco Bay area locales. Paper presented at the Conference on Drug Usage and Drug Subcultures, Asilomar, Calif., February 12, 1970.

55. Manheimer, D. I., Mellinger, G. D., & Baiter, M. B. Marijuana use among urban adults. Science, 1969, 166(3912): 1544-1545.

56. Manheimer, D. I., Mellinger, G. D., & Baiter, M. B. Use of marijuana among an urban cross-section of adults. Unpublished manuscript, San Francisco, 1969.

57. Marchuk, E. Montreal report. Sub-study of M. Green, Committed users study. Unpublished Commission research project, 1970.

58. Matza, D. Becoming deviant. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1969.

59. Mayer, N. How the middle class turns on. New York, 1969, 2(42): 42 -46.

60. Mayor'sCommitteeonMarihuana. ThemarihuanaprobleminthecityofNew York. Lancaster, Penn.: Jacques Cattell Press, 1944. (The La Guardia report)

61. McGlothlin, W. H., Arnold, D. O., & Rowan, P. K. Marijuana use among adults. Psychiatry, 1970, 33(4): 433-443.

62. McReynolds, D. Hipsters unleashed. In S. Krim (Ed.), The beats. Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett, 1960. Pp. 202 -2 1 0. 63. Mezzrow, M., & Wolfe, B. Really the blues. Toronto: Signet, 1964.

64. Mirin, S. M., Shapiro, L. M., Meyer, R. E., Pillard, R. C., & Fisher, S. Casual versus heavy use of marijuana: A redefinition of the marijuana problem. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 127(9): 54-60.

65. Mizner, G. L., Barter, J. T., & Werme, P. H. Patterns of drug use among college students: A preliminary report. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1970, 127(l): 55-64.

66. Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia, Research Department. Drug use among Vancouver secondary students. Unpublished manuscript, Vancouver, 197 I.

67. Oki, G., & Sisson, B. V. A study of marihuana users and usage. Unpublished manuscript, Project F-169. Sub-studies 2-16 & 34-70, 3-16 & 34-70. Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, 1970. (Supplemented by personal communication to the Commission)

68. Paulus, 1. Psychedelic drug use in Vancouver: Notes on the new drug scene. Vancouver: Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia, August, 1967. 69. Paulus, 1. Psychedelic drug use on the Canadian Pacific coast: Notes on the new drug scene. International Journal of the Addictions, 1969, 4(l): 77-88.

70. Paulus, I., & Williams, H. R. Marihuana and young adults. British Columbia MedicalJournal, 1966,8(6): 240-244.

71. Pearlman, S., Philip, A. F., Robbins, L., Robbins, E. S., Robinson, E., & Schmitter, B. The college drug scene: Adventures in epidemiological research. Paper presented at the Symposium on Students and Drugs, 55th Annual Convention of the American Educational Research Association, New York, February, 1971.

72. Polsky, N. Hustlers, beats and others. Chicago: Aldine, 1967.

73. Priest, T. B., & McGrath, J. H. Techniques of neutralization: Young adult marijuana smokers. Criminology, 1970, 8: 185-194.

74. Rigney, F. J., & Smith, L. D. The real bohemia. New York: Basic Books, 1961.

75. Roffman, R. A., & Sapol, E. Marijuana in Vietnam: A survey of use among army enlisted men in the two southern corps. International Journal of the Addictions, 1970, 5(l): 1-42.

76. Ruddy, J. Some of the best people smoke pot. Maclean's, 1969, 82: 35-38.

77. Rush, G. B. Tune in, turn on, drop out. Brief submitted to the Commission, Vancouver, October, 1969.

78. Russell, J. S. Survey of drug use in selected British Columbia schools. Vancou- ver: Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia, 1970.

79. Sadava, S. W. Stages of drug use: A methodological contribution to Crosssectional study. Unpublished manuscript, Loyola College, Montreal, 1970.

80. Schaps, E., & Sanders, C. R. Purposes, patterns, and protection in a campus drug using community. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1970, 11(2): 135-145.

81. Schofield, M. The strange case ofpot. Middlesex, Eng.: Penguin, 197 1.

82. Shick, J. F. E., Smith, D. E., & Meyers, F. H. Use of marijuana in the HaightAshbury subculture. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 1968, 2(l): 49-66.

83. Shick, J. F. E., Smith, D. E., & Meyers, F. H. Patterns of drug use in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood. Clinical Toxicology, 1970, 3(l): 19-56.

84. Siler, J. F., Sheep, W. L., Bates, L. B., Clark, G. F., Cook, G. W., & Smith, A. Mariajuana smoking in Panama. Military Surgeon, 1933, 73: 269-280.

85. Simmons, J. L., & Winograd, B. It's happening: A portrait of the youth scene toda' v. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Marc-Laird Publications, 1966.

86. Smart, R. G., Fejer, D., & White, J. The extent of drug use in metropolitan Toronto schools: A study of changesfrom 1968 to 1970. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation, 1970.

87. Smart, R. G., & Jackson, D. A preliminary report on the attitudes and behaviour of Toronto students in relation to drugs. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation, 1969.

88. Smart, R. G., & Jackson, D. The Yorkville subculture: A study of the life styles and interactions of hippies and non-hippies. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation, 1969.

89. Smith, D. E. (Ed.) The new social drug: Cultural, medical and legal perspeetives on marijuana. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970.

90. Steinbeck, J. In touch. New York: Dell, 1968.

91. Stoddart, K. Vancouver report. Sub-study of M. Green, Committed users study. Unpublished Commission research project, 1970.

92. Suchman, E. A. The "hang loose" ethic and the spirit of drug use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 1968, 9(2): 146-155.

93. United States, Congress, House, Committee on Armed Services, Inquiry into alleged drug abuse in the armed services: Report of a special subcommittee. 92d Cong., 2d sess., 197 1, H.A.S.C. 92-4.

94. United States, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Marihuana and health. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 197 1.

95. Vincent,D.,&TarasoffN. Research report of summer transient youth.Winni- peg: Community Welfare Planning Council, 1969. 96. Walton, R. P. Marihuana: America's new drug problem. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1938.

97. Watts, W. D. The psychedelic experience: A sociological study. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1971.

98. Weakland, J. H. Hippies: What the scene means. In R. H. Blum & Associates, Society and drugs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969. Pp. 343-372.

99. Winick, C. Marihuana use by young people. In E. Harms (Ed.), Drug addiction in youth. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1965. Pp. 19-35.

100. Wolk, D. J. Marijuana on the campus: A study at one university. Journal of the American College Health Association, 1968, 17: 144 149.

101. Woolfrey, J. Winnipeg report. Sub-study of M. Green, Committed users study. Unpublished Commission research project, 1970.

102. Yablonsky, L. The hippie trip. New York: Pegassus, 1968.


Contents | Feedback | Search | DRCNet Home Page | Join DRCNet

DRCNet Library | Schaffer Library | Major Studies

Canadian Government Commission of Inquiry - Cannabis Report

Library Highlights

Drug Information Articles

Drug Rehab