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Tobacco
Health Effects of Exposure to
Environmental Tobacco Smoke

Table 5.1
ETS Exposure and infertility or fecundability:

Adult Exposure

 

Authors (yr)
Location

Design
(study size)

Exposure Definition

Results1

Comments

Tokuhata (1968)
United States
(Memphis)
Questionnaire to next-of-kin. Case-control study of cancer
(n = 2,016)
Husband smoked Had lowest risk of never having been pregnant.
OR:OR = 0.67 (0.46-0.98)
Not adjusted. Crude measure of infertility. Lifetime history.
Baird & Wilcox (1985)
United States (Minnesota)
Retrospective interview of pregnant volunteers (n = 678) Husband smoking No association with delay to conception after adjustment for active smoking and confounders. Thorough questions about delay. Not a representative sample (high SES). Data not shown.
Suonio et al. (1990)
Finland
Retrospective interview at prenatal care clinics, population-based
(n = 2,198)
Husband smoking Adjusted OROR of delayed conception
(6-12 mo):
= 1.3 (1.2 -1.4), potentiated by age.
No data on intercourse or contraception. Included smokers.
Olsen (1991)
Denmark
Retrospective questionnaire to pregnant women
(n = 10,886)
Husband smoking OR:OR = 1.3 (1.0 -1.8) for 20
cigs/day and delay >6 mos. In

maternal nonsmokers.
OR in smokers:OR = 1.6 (1.3 - 2.1) in smokers.
No data on intercourse.
Spouse smoking during pregnancy (vs. before).
Florack et al. (1994)
The Netherlands
Interview of women planning pregnancy, follow 12 months
(n= 259)

Prospective

Partner smoking FR1: = 2.1 (1.2, 3.5)
for 1-10 cigs/day
FR: = 1.0 (0.7, 1.6)
for >10 cigs/day
Not adjusted.
Includes female smokers.

 

1 OR -= odds ratio:, SES -= socioeconomic status;, FR -= fecundability ratio; Fecundability ratio (FR) indicates probability of conception at each cycle. FR >1 indicates improved" fecundability, whereas FR <1 indicates sub-fecundability, when comparing 2 groups.

Table 5.2
ETS Exposure and infertility or fecundability:

Childhood Exposure

 

Authors (yr)
Location

Design
(study size)

Exposure Definition

Results

Comments

Wilcox et al. (1989)
Minnesota
Re-interview women who had pregnancy
(n = 631)
Parental smoking
(childhood ETS and in -utero exposure)2
FR1 := 1.3 (1.1 -1.6) for 1 or 2
household smokers,
1.6 (1.1 -2.2) for more
Biologic plausibility? In -utero exposure FR = 0.9.
Other characteristics of moms not ascertained.
Weinberg et al. (1989)
North Carolina
Prospective study after stopping birth control
(n = 230)
Childhood exposure to smokers.
In- utero xposure2
FR: = 1.0 crude
FR: = 1.6 (1.0, 2.4) if exposed. to 2 smokers, adjusted. for in -utero exposure and other variables
Selected group. In -utero exposure FR = 0.5 (0.4, 0.8). Exposure prior to attempt to conceive.
Schwingl (1992)
California
Prospective exposure (of mother) and cross- Childhood exposure FR: = 1.1 for 1 smoker
FR: = 1.2 for 2 smokers
(p>0.2)
Exposure from mother herself.
Adjusted.
  sectional (n = 318) In -utero exposure2 FR: = 1.2 (0.9-1.4), no dose-
response
No association of FR with active smoking.

 

1 Fecundability ratio (FR) indicates probability of conception at each cycle. FR >1 indicates "improved" fecundability,

whereas FR <1 indicates sub-fecundability, when comparing 2 groups.

 

2 In -utero exposure indicates that the mother of the target participant smoked during her pregnancy.

 

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