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Historical References
Marijuana, the First 12,000 Years

Marijuana - The First Twelve Thousand Years


1. H. J. Anslinger and W. Oursler, The Murderers. The Story of the Narcotics Gangs (New York: Farrar, Straus, 1961), p.9.

2. Quoted in S. Meisler, "Federal Narcotics Czar," The Nation. 190(1960): 160.

3. D. T. Dickson, "Bureaucracy and Morality: An Organizational Perspective on a Moral Crusade," Social Problems 16 (1968): 143-56.

4. U.S. Bureau of Narcotics, Traffic in Opium and Other Drugs (Washington, D.C.: U.S Government Printing Office, 1934), p.61.

5. Of the seventeen articles dealing with marihuana indexed in the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature from July 1937 to July 1939, ten acknowledged the help of the Bureau of Narcotics in supplying information (H. Becker, Outsiders [New York: The Free Press: 1963], p.141).

6. H. J. Anslinger and C. R. Cooper, "Marihuana: Assassin of Youth," American Magazine 124 (1937): 19.

7. Anslinger and Oursler, Murderers, p.10.

8. D. Musto, "The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937," Archives of General Psychiatry 26 (1972): 105.

9. A. Lander, "The International Drug Control System," in Drug Use in America: Problem in Perspective (Washington, D.C.: National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, 1973), 3: 25.

10. Quoted in D. Musto, The American Disease (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973), p. 227.

11. Ibid

12. Hearings before Committee on Ways and Means on H.R. 6385. House of Representatives, 75th Congress. 1st Session, 1937, p.6.

13. Ibid., p.30.

14. E. Stanley, "Marihuana as a Developer of Criminals," American Journal of Police Science 2 (1931): 252-61.

15. Hearings, p.51.

16. However, an 1895 text on pigeons states: "Hempseed, if sound and good, they are very fond of, and it is very beneficial at times, especially in cold weather, or given as a relish and not as regular food. It is, in fact, a stimulant, and to be so regarded. If a bird appears low-spirited, nothing will cheer it up more than a little good hempseed mixed with some dry raw rice" (quoted in W. M. Levi, The Pigeon [Sumter, S.: Levi Publishing Co., 1957] p. 450.

Another text written in 1914 notes: "Hemp, sometimes recommended, is of use only as a pick-me-up in the case of a bird that happens to be out of sorts..." (quoted in Levi, The Pigeon, 450).

In 1912, Dr. Victor Robinson wrote about cannabis seeds: "Some birds consume them to excess which should lead us to suspect that these seeds tho they cannot intoxicate us, have a narcotic effect on the feathered creatures, making them dream of a happy birdland where there are no gilded cages, and where the men are gunless and the women hatless" (V. Robinson, "An Essay on Hasheesh; Including Observations and Experiments," MedicalReview of Reviews 18 [1912]: 162).

In 1957, W. M. Levi, who during 1917-8 had been a first lieutenant in charge of the Pigeon Section, U.S. Signal Corps, and president of the Palmetto Pigeon Plant from 1923 to 1956, also referred to the effects of hemp seeds on pigeons: "In addition to the actual physical effect produced upon the bird's body, its feeding has a decided beneficial psychological effect upon the bird's happiness. Pigeons fed sparingly with a little hemp in the middle of the day during the moulting season take a new interest in life which is almost inconceivable" (Levi, The Pigeon, p. 499).

17. Hearings, p. 92.

18. Ibid., p. 116.

19. G. R. McCormack, "Marihuana," Hygeia 15 (1937): 898-9.

20. Musto, American Disease, p. 228.

21. U.S., Congress, House, Congressional Record, 81st Cong., 1st sess., 1937, p. 5575.


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