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Historical References
Marijuana, the First 12,000 Years

Marijuana - The First Twelve Thousand Years


1. N.J. Van der Merwe, "Cannabis Smoking in 13-14th Century Ethiopia", in Cannabis and Culture, ed. V. Rubin (The Hague: Mouton, 1975), pp. 77-80.

2. J. Walton, "The Dagga Pipes of Southern Africa", Research of National Museum 1 (1963): 85-113.

3. Quoted in B. Laufer, W.D. Hambly, and R. Linten, "Tobacco and Its Uses in Africa", Field Museum of Natural History 1 (1930): 13.

4. The Dutch referred to both Cannabis sativa and Leontis leonurus as daccha (dagga), so it is possible that mush of what was written about cannabis may not have pertained to it at all. However, the descriptions seem to fit cannabis, and, therefore, they have been treated as such.

5. Quoted in J.E. Morley and A.D. Bensusan, "Dagga: Tribal Uses and Customs", Medical Proceedings 17 (1971): 409-12.

6. J. Schreyer, "Diary", in Cape of Good Hope, ed. R. Raven-Hart (Capetown: 1971), A.A. Balkewa, p. 126.

7. E.W. Stowe, The Native Races of South Africa (Capetown: Juta and Co., 1910), pp. 52-3.

8. Morley and Bensusan, "Dagga", p. 410.

9. C.P. Thunberg, An Account of the Cape of Good Hope and Some Parts of the Interior of Southern Africa (1795), in A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages and Travels in All Parts of the World, ed. J. Pinkerton (London: Longman, Hurst, Ries, Orme, and Brown, 1811), 16: 31.

10. G. Thompson, Travels and Adventures in Southern Africa (Cape Town: Van Riebeeck Society, 1967).

11. Ibid.

12. H. Vedder, South West Africa in Early Times (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1966).

13. H.M. Stanley, Through the Dark Continent (New York: Harper & Bros, 1879), 1: 71.

14. Ibid., p. 86.

15. A.T. Bryant, The Zulu People, cited in T. James, "Dagga: A Review of Fact and Fancy", Medical Journal 44 (1970): 575-80.

16. Ibid.

17. D. Livingstone, Missionary Travels and Research in South Africa (London: John Murray, 1857), p. 540.

18. E.W. Hobby, Eastern Uganda (London: Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, 1902), p. 30.

19. J.P. Purvis, Through Uganda to Mt. Elgon (London: Fisher Unwin, 1909), pp. 336-7. This is the only reference to possible birth defects resulting from maternal smoking of cannabis that I have come across in the anthropological and sociological literature.

20. H.A. Junod, The Life of a South African Tribe (Neuchatel, Switzerland: Attinger Bros., 1912), pp 342-5.

21. Vedder, South West Africa, p. 175.

22. Junod, Life, pp. 311-4.

23. R.P.H. Tulles, "Totemism Among the Fang", Anthropos 1 (1912): 1-26.

24. H. von Wissman, My Second Journey Through Equatorial Africa (London: Chatto & Windus, 1891), p. 312; cf: K. Zetterstrom, "Bena Riamba, Brothers of the Hemp", Studia Ethnographica Upsaliensia, 26 (1966): 151-65.

25. P.M. Larkin, An Account of the Zande(Khartoum: McCorquodale & Co., 1926), 1: 93.

26. B.M. Du Toit, "Historical and Cultural Factors Influencing Cannabis Use Among Indians in South Africa," Journal of Psychedelic Drugs 9 (1977): 235-46.

27. Quoted in ibid., p. 241.


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